Immortalized cells tend to be easier to culture than cells used in primary cultures in that they grow more robustly and do not require extraction from a living animal. Because these are standard lines used by many different labs, immortalized cells are fairly well characterized. Michael J. LaQuaglia, Michael P. LaQuaglia, in Blumgart's Surgery of the Liver, Biliary Tract and Pancreas, 2-Volume Set (Sixth Edition), 2017. Finally, although individual molecules such as voltage-sensitive calcium channels may be functionally identical in primary neurons and immortal cell lines, the cell lines may lack some molecules normally found in primary neurons and complex cascades of intracellular signaling may be somewhat different. In summary, some of the DC lines maintain the growth factor dependence, thus providing a unique opportunity to study cytokine-mediated growth regulation of DCs (Table 12.3). The oncogene-immortalized cell lines CB1, D2SC/1 and FSDC continued to proliferate in conventional culture media (RPMI-1640 or Iscove's MDM) with 5 or 10% FCS in the absence of added growth factors (Paglia et al., 1993; Granucci et al., 1994; Girolomoni et al., 1995). Addition of growth factor to PC12 cells causes them to differentiate into neuron-like cells that grow neurites and synthesize neurotransmitters. Primary cells and immortalized cell lines have a limited number of divisions before they exit the cell cycle, a process termed cellular senescence. 2013 Oct;37(10):1038-45. doi: 10.1002/cbin.10137. Thus, it is important to periodically validate the characteristics of cultured cells and not use cells that have been passaged too many times. 2000; Lee et al. Also, because they grow quickly and continuously, it is possible to extract large amounts of proteins for biochemical assays (Chapter 15). In addition, the association between hepatoblastoma and β-catenin, an APC-regulated protein and transcription cofactor for many proliferation genes, is well studied. migration, invasion, gene expression, and angiogenesis) can be investigated either alone or in combination with other constituents of the tumor microenvironment such as the cell matrix or interactions with other cell types. accum ulatio n of chrom osoma l instab ility. Neuroblastoma cell lines, like mouse Neuro2A, also express neurotransmitters and have been used in electrophysiology and neurodevelopment studies. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. FIELD: biotechnologies. Antibodies against the latent antigen, EBNA, usually only appear 1 to 6 months after primary infection (in the convalescent phase) or as part of the latency profiles of the various malignancies associated with EBV infection. In a few studies, full-genome basal expression profiles generated from HepG2 and HepaRG cells have been compared with those from PHH [25,26,66]. APBs contain chromosomal or extrachromosomal telomeric DNA, telomere-associated proteins, and proteins involved in homologous recombination. Because immortalized cells continuously divide, they eventually fill up the dish or flask in which they are growing. Credit: CC0 Public Domain Researchers at the University of … HepG2 cells are well characterized and frequently used in toxicological and pharmacological studies [55–57]. These cells, when cultured until quiescence and with specific medium conditions, possess features corresponding to well-differentiated hepatocytes [60]. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123748492000136, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128005118000149, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123978622000103, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128033951000137, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780121852917500254, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781907568428500022, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124558519500511, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780443073670000938, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123820068000098, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780323340625000959, Guide to Research Techniques in Neuroscience (Second Edition), 2015, Guide to Research Techniques in Neuroscience, Guide to Research Techniques in Neuroscience (Second Edition), Hepatotoxicity Screening on In Vitro Models and the Role of ’Omics, Telomere Maintenance in the Dynamic Nuclear Architecture, Providing Pharmacological Access to the Brain, Development and testing of dendritic cell lines, Stephen N.J. Korsman MMed FCPath, ... Wolfgang Preiser MRCPath, in, Catherine L. Murray, ... Charles M. Rice, in, Michael J. LaQuaglia, Michael P. LaQuaglia, in, Blumgart's Surgery of the Liver, Biliary Tract and Pancreas, 2-Volume Set (Sixth Edition), Robust and easy to handle; contact inhibited; stops growing at very high densities, From cervical cancer in a human patient named Henrietta Lacks; may contaminate other cultured cell lines; able to grow in suspension, Efficiently transfected; commonly used as an expression system for high-level, short-term expression of proteins, Easy to transfect and manipulate; commonly used as an expression system to study signaling and recombinant proteins, Polarized with distinct apical and basal sides, used in studying trafficking, Useful for stable gene expression and high protein yields for biochemical assays; commonly used as an expression system for studying cell signaling and recombinant proteins, Neuron-like, derived from a neuroendocrine adrenal tumor; can differentiate into a neuron-like cell in the presence of NGF, Model system for studying pathways involved in neuronal differentiation; can be driven to differentiate by cannabinoid and serotonin receptor stimulation, Human neuroblastoma, cloned from bone marrow, Dopamine beta hydroxylase activity, acetylcholinergic, glutamatergic, adenosinergic; grow as clusters of neuroblast-type cells with short, fine neurites, From cervical cancer in a human patient named Henrietta Lacks; may contaminate other cultured cell lines; able to grow in suspension (i.e., grow without adhering to bottom of plates), Neuron-like, derived from a neuroendocrine adrenal tumor; can differentiate into a neuron-like cell in the presence of nerve growth factor. These cells can synthesize catecholamines, dopamine, and norepinephrine, and express tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and choline acetylase (ChAT), enzymes involved in the production of neurotransmitters. Akira Takashima, Hiroyuki Matsue, in Dendritic Cells (Second Edition), 2001. Additionally, individual characteristic of the OS (e.g. When generating an immortalized cell line one of the first steps is the selection of the brain region of interest and its optimal gestational age. Because immortalized cells continuously divide, they eventually fill up the dish or flask in which they grow. Table 14.1. Second, many can be caused to differentiate in culture ‘on command,’ by the addition of appropriate differentiation factors such as nerve growth factor, retinoic acid, dibutyryl cyclic adenosine-3′,5′-monophosphate (dibutyryl cyclic AMP), or elevated temperature. ATRX is a chromatin remodeler of the SWItch/sucrose nonfermentable complex (SWI/SNF) family that binds DNA tandem repeats both at telomeres and in euchromatin. These cells can synthesize dopamine, norepinephrine, and acetylcholine. E. Micheli, ... S. Cacchione, in Chromatin Regulation and Dynamics, 2017. IL-4 and IL-13 were both found to promote the growth of XS52 cells significantly, albeit to a lesser extent than that observed for GM-CSF and CSF-1. As useful as immortalized cell lines of neural origin can be for certain experiments, they show obviously abnormal traits, such as the unusual combination of neurotransmitters they produce (no normal neuron produces dopamine, norepinephrine, and acetylcholine in the same cell!). A final advantage is that they decrease the use of animals used for research purposes. Recently, differentially expressed microRNA has been shown to be deregulated in hepatoblastoma (Magrelli et al, 2009). From: Guide to Research Techniques in Neuroscience (Second Edition), 2015, Matt Carter, Jennifer C. Shieh, in Guide to Research Techniques in Neuroscience, 2010. An immortalised cell line is a population of cells from a multicellular organism which would normally not proliferate indefinitely but, due to mutation, have evaded normal cellular senescence and instead can keep undergoing division. Also, after periods of continuous growth, cell characteristics can change and become even more different from those of a “normal” cell. Different tests are done on artificially prepared cells and cell lines in order to assess the behaviour of the cell. Fourth, there is an increasingly large catalog of well-characterized substrains of some cell lines, such as PC12 cells that are deficient in cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (Glowacka and Wagner 1990), providing the equivalent of ‘knockout’ cells in culture. Coimmunoprecipitation was then performed between YAP and β-catenin in HepG2 cells, which exhibited an association between the two (Tao et al, 2014). ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080468846013257, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128005118000149, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128012383622596, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123978622000103, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128033951000137, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780121852917500254, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781907568428500022, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124558519500511, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780443073670000938, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123820068000098, Guide to Research Techniques in Neuroscience (Second Edition), Hepatotoxicity Screening on In Vitro Models and the Role of ’Omics, Telomere Maintenance in the Dynamic Nuclear Architecture, Providing Pharmacological Access to the Brain, Development and testing of dendritic cell lines, Stephen N.J. Korsman MMed FCPath, ... Wolfgang Preiser MRCPath, in, Catherine L. Murray, ... Charles M. Rice, in, Robust and easy to handle; contact inhibited; stops growing at very high densities, From cervical cancer in a human patient named Henrietta Lacks; may contaminate other cultured cell lines; able to grow in suspension (i.e., grow without adhering to bottom of plates), Efficiently transfected; commonly used as an expression system for high-level, short-term expression of proteins, Easy to transfect and manipulate; commonly used as an expression system to study signaling and recombinant proteins, Polarized with distinct apical and basal sides, used in studying trafficking, Useful for stable gene expression and high protein yields for biochemical assays; commonly used as an expression system for studying cell signaling and recombinant proteins, Neuron-like, derived from a neuroendocrine adrenal tumor; can differentiate into a neuron-like cell in the presence of nerve growth factor, Model system for studying pathways involved in neuronal differentiation; can be driven to differentiate by cannabinoid and serotonin receptor stimulation, Human neuroblastoma, cloned from bone marrow, Dopamine beta hydroxylase activity, acetylcholinergic, glutamatergic, adenosinergic; grow as clusters of neuroblast-type cells with short, fine neurites.

immortalised cell line

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