The records indicate an abrupt increase in Arctic sea ice exported to the North Atlantic starting around 1300, peaking in midcentury, and ending abruptly in the late 1300s. The Little Ice Age can be divided into two phases, according to an article in The New Yorker. Cretaceous and fellow sea reptile Maelstromwere once creatures of the era of dinosaurs that had worked in tandem to catch prey. 2016). These results provide evidence that marked climate changes may not require an external trigger. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Privacy Policy Polar packs undergo a significant yearly … You’ve got the right idea Ron. Rising seas swallowed up low-lying areas such as the English Channel and North Sea, forcing our ancestors to abandon many settlements. Map s… Arctic sea ice affects climate on seasonal to decadal time scales, and models suggest that sea ice is essential for longer anomalies such as the Little Ice Age. 2. ( Log Out /  These maps don’t contain any lakes of this period. (C) North Iceland shelf sea surface temperatures (SSTs) based on alkenones (29), inverted scale. Miles and his colleagues would like to factor in the oceanic changes nearby: very large amounts of sea ice and cold polar waters, year after year for nearly a century. If the currents weaken a little, it will be much colder than usual,” he said. The updated version(s) reduces the solar minimum TSI range since 1600 of almost 1W/m^2 by over half. After the ice sheets began to melt and retreat, sea level rose rapidly, with several periods of even faster spurts. 56, An analysis of cause-effect relationships does not leave any doubt in what direction and in what order the climate signal propagates in the atmosphere-ocean-polar ice system. The animation shows the seasonal variability of the ice, growing in the Arctic winter and melting in the summer. "And the perfect example of that could be the Little Ice Age.". The maps and bar graphs show the age of Arctic sea ice for each month of a chosen year. https://i.postimg.cc/hjkKvS21/Lo-TSI-Hard-Winters.jpg << from my 2018 AGU poster. Much of the world's sea ice is enclosed within the polar ice packs in the Earth's polar regions: the Arctic ice pack of the Arctic Ocean and the Antarctic ice pack of the Southern Ocean. Mudryk, L., C. Derksen, S.E.L. Ron, my first link caption should read “Sea Ice peaks generally occur at solar minima (arrows) & maxima (circles), from either long duration low TSI or low TSI from large sunspots groups”, and the Wu etal solar reconstruction is the ten-year average sunspot number. He would like to look more closely into oceanic conditions along with researchers who study the social sciences in relation to climate. North and south: Equal melting from each hemisphere raised ice age sea levels. Clair Patterson, Measuring Earth's Age, Discovery of Pb contamination, Why Grid North doesn't agree with True North on maps, Science X Daily and the Weekly Email Newsletter are free features that allow you to receive your favorite sci-tech news updates in your email inbox. Pgs. However, empirical evidence is fragmentary. Ice Age Maps We would be at war "If a foreign nation had launched an attack on America to destroy its coal-fired plants, to shut down its coal mines, and to thwart its ability to drill for oil and natural gas, we would be at war with it." However, empirical evidence is fragmentary. The ice that melts and turns into fresh water can affect ocean currents, which in turn affect the atmosphere and climate, he says. Here, we reconstruct sea ice exported from the Arctic Ocean over the past 1400 years, using a spatial network of proxy records. I have been watching the AMO, but it has still not produced a shift into its negative phase. 49, It follows from the above that, under present day conditions, the changes in the area of the Arctic sea ice during the colder period of the year can be induced only by the change in the haline structure of the upper ocean layer. You can unsubscribe at any time and we'll never share your details to third parties. Location: North Sea. 2011; Tschudi et al. The age of sea ice is also a key descriptor of the state of the sea ice cover. The maps below show how the territory may have arisen during the Last Glacial Maximum, around 21 thousand years ago, when sea levels were about 125 meters (410 feet) below the present. The rest of the story about why this would occur, however, remains a mystery. They compiled data from seabed samples from areas outside Greenland, the eastern part of the Fram Strait, the Greenland Sea and off Iceland. 1 Ice Age 2 Ice Age: The Meltdown 3 Ice Age: Dawn of the Dinosaurs 4 Ice Age: A Mammoth Christmas 5 Ice Age: Continental Drift 6 Ice Age: Collision Course 7 Scrat: Spaced Out 8 See also Rusted Root - Send Me On My Way. The age of sea ice is also a key descriptor of the state of the sea ice cover. The simulation starts 21,000 years ago and ends 8,000 years in the future, showing the changes in ice concentration, sea level, and vegetation. Fran, I think that we are due for a cooling off, but not ready to sound alarms about the end of the Holocene. ( Log Out /  Miller authored the first paper to suggest that sea ice played an essential role in sustaining the Little Ice Age. The ocean open water and temperature distribution profiles ensure asymmetrical asynchronous freezing/melting. By the end of summer, Arctic Ocean ice cover melted back to the second-lowest minimum extent on record.In autumn, the annual freeze-up of sea ice got off to a late … Below is a 2018 model comparison of Svalgaard’s model, Lean’s 2018 model, and my empirically-based model based on PMOD (also needing an update too using RMIB data) followed by my application of my model to the climate: The NW Pacific regularly becomes a hotspot after positive ENSO conditions, such as in 2018/19 right into early 2020. This is particularly true during cold periods and when there is also a lot of sea ice formation. The TSI of the beginning of the XX century was much lower [relatively speaking] than the present, Original site address for the TSI graph, The surface air temperature in the Arctic during the interglacial periods was higher by several degrees than present day temperatures. "If you are in an ice age, then you'll have more or less ice depending on these orbital cycles. This melt-back lasted from about … This cooling caused glaciers to expand in Scandinavia, the Alps, in Iceland, Alaska, China, in the southern Andes and in New Zealand. Sea-ice and ocean reconstructions from marine sediment cores. I took Miles to be saying that Sea Ice extents are not the only factor, but have been underappreciated. Science News 166(Aug. 28):133. 48-49, Thus, the presented facts suggest that the most significant cause of changes in the ice cover extent are the changes in the vertical water structure in the upper ocean layer, rather than the changes of thermal conditions in the atmosphere. One the other hand, the same evidence supports an intriguing alternate explanation. Civilizations tend to stick to rivers and coastlines for all sorts of good reasons, so this is not something to be ignored. Scientists have argued about the causes of the Little Ice Age for decades, with many suggesting that explosive volcanic eruptions must be essential for initiating the cooling period and allowing it to persist over centuries. Raz while firing snow cannons. Sea ice covers about 7% of the Earth's surface and about 12% of the world's oceans. Throughout 2020, the Arctic Ocean and surrounding seas endured several notable weather and climate events. In several of these areas, ice will only be found if there is an especially large amount flowing out of the Arctic Ocean. The most recent Ice Age occurred then, as glaciers covered huge parts of Earth. Sea ice triggered the Little Ice Age. Fig. “What we have happening now is the start of the mini ice age … it began around 2013. "This specific investigation was inspired by an INSTAAR colleague, Giff Miller, as well as by some of the paleoclimate reconstructions of my INSTAAR colleagues Anne Jennings, John Andrews, and Astrid Ogilvie," added Miles. Fig. Here, we reconstruct sea ice exported from the Arctic Ocean over the past 1400 years, using a spatial network of proxy records. It also seems to me that changes in solar output as an input to our climate system have to be integrated over time. Because ice is less dense than water, it floats on the ocean's surface. (2056) Ice Age 19: The Underwater Adventure; Ice Age 2 Chicken Little The Einstein Angry Birds Wall-E Monsters, Inc. Mixels; Ice Age 2: The Meltdown Scenes; Category:Ice age 4; As the seas rose, animals and people who occupied the coastal plains retreated inland away from the flood. Retrieved on December 10, 2018. Then, 20 000 years ago, a great thaw began. Change ), HCQ is effective for COVID-19 when used early (118 studies), https://i.postimg.cc/hjkKvS21/Lo-TSI-Hard-Winters.jpg, https://lasp.colorado.edu/home/sorce/data/tsi-data/, https://wordpress.com/read/blogs/87268333/posts/3346, Primary Viral Defensive Care in the New Year, Big Chill Over Land and Sea with 2020 End, Fear Not Rising Temperatures or Ocean Levels, Big Chill Over Land and Sea with 2020 End, Preview Senate Briefing on Election Wrongdoing. The only reasonable conclusion, the scientists decided, was that ice melted equally in the North and the South. That will be the last hurdle for TSI research that may not happen for who knows how long, and until then the very highest TSI limits can only be approximated. Civilizations tend to stick to rivers and coastlines for all sorts of good reasons, so this is not something to be ignored. It rained “without stopping” in 1315, and grain didn’t ripen. Click here to sign in with https://wordpress.com/read/blogs/87268333/posts/3346. The content is provided for information purposes only. (E) Central Greenland Sea, based on IRD (24). The bar graphs help show how the proportion of each type of ice has changed during the same time of year, over the satellite record. After the ice sheets began to melt and retreat, sea level rose rapidly, with several periods of even faster spurts. 56, It is important to note that the ice effect on the atmosphere is not limited to the thermal effect. The Dutch artist Hendrick Avercamp painted winter activity on the ice during the first half of the 17th century, when it was quite cold in Central and Northern Europe. You can be assured our editors closely monitor every feedback sent and will take appropriate actions. The situation was much the same the following year. (Image: Henrik Avercamp / Wikimedia Commons). Thanks for your interesting comments, that are very similar to my understanding too that solar activity is the main driver of Earth’s climate. Thanks Fran. While previous experiments using numerical climate models showed that increased sea ice was necessary to explain long-lasting climate anomalies like the Little Ice Age, physical evidence was missing. Medical research advances and health news, The latest engineering, electronics and technology advances, The most comprehensive sci-tech news coverage on the web. These changes are induced by fluctuations in the horizontal dimensions of the halocline, which are governed in turn by the expansion or reduction of the surface Arctic water mass. Sea-ice and ocean reconstructions from marine sediment cores: (A) Nansen Fjord, East Greenland, based on foraminifera (25), inverted scale. Your feedback will go directly to Science X editors. There are vast areas where the ice cap are simply stationary. Ice Age 12: Journey In The Deep Blue Sea (2039) Ice Age 15: The Return of Polo (2049) Ice Age 17: Sub-Zero Heroes Unite! (B) Eastern Fram Strait, based on IRD (22). 19,000BC was chosen as the start date because this was the last glacial maximum, when the Earth's ice sheets were at their maximum extension. "We decided to put together different strands of evidence to try to reconstruct spatially and temporally what the sea ice was during the past one and a half thousand years, and then just see what we found," said Martin Miles, an INSTAAR researcher who also holds an appointment with NORCE Norwegian Research Centre and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research in Norway. It all may have started with sea ice, and the changes may have happened all by themselves without the influence of volcanoes or the Sun, researchers behind a new study say. That it can produce a significant effect on atmospheric circulation is already evident from the fact that the Arctic anticyclone, considered by Viese [13] as a regulator of atmospheric processes in the Northern polar region, could form as a pressure formation only in the conditions of the ice regime in the Arctic. Set during the Ice Age, a sabertooth tiger, a sloth, and a wooly mammoth find a lost human infant, and they try to return him to his tribe. Since satellite records began in 1978, summer and autumn sea ice extent has decreased approximately 50 percent, an amount roughly equal to half the area of the continental United States. Master of the Seas. A new record for minimum area of Arctic sea ice was set in 2012, and The reconstruction suggests that the Little Ice Age—which was not a true ice age but a regional cooling centered on Europe—was triggered by an exceptionally large outflow of sea ice … Mammoths and the largest species of American bison went extinct. Later in the 14th century there were several episodes of wild weather and cold periods. (D) South Greenland Fjord, based on diatoms (31). It began with a cooling period in 1300 – 1400. 2004. “The fact is the sun rules the sea temperature, and the sea temperature rules the climate,” explains Corbyn. On the graphs, ice is broken out into three categories. The " Master of the Seas " is a song which Gutt, an ape voiced by Peter Dinklage in Ice Age: Continental Drift sings. ( Log Out /  Age: Pleistocene Ice Age. V. F. Zakharov has published a complete description supported by research findings under this title: Sea Ice In the Climate System A Russian View (here). When it has become clear that the changes in the ocean, caused by disturbances of its freshwater balance, precede changes in the extent of sea ice, and the latter the changes in the atmosphere, then there was nothing left but for us to acknowledge self oscillation to be the most probable explanation for the development of the natural process. Bottom line:  A bit less ice in the Arctic indicates that we are not yet slipping into an ice age, little or otherwise. The samples contained small fossils that give researchers information about sea temperatures and loose material that sea ice had carried with it. In the case of the Little Ice Age, "what we reconstructed in space and time was strikingly similar to the development in an Ugly Duckling model simulation, in which a spontaneous cold event lasted about a century. part may be reproduced without the written permission. (2020). Sea ice in the Arctic is becoming younger and thinner, so that the ice pack is even more vulnerable to melting. If the Sahara is caused by the Hadley cell, it should ring the Earth like the Hadley cell, surely? That means the upward trend in at least the floor level will be less than shown in de Wit’s 2017 plot. How long can that continue, I can not say. by Medievalists.net. A debate has raged over why the colonies vanished, usually agreeing only that a cooling climate pushed hard on their resilience. The bar graphs show sea ice age as either millions of square kilometers or as a percentage of the total sea ice extent. It’s a slow start, and now the rate of moving into the mini ice age is accelerating. "I love this job!" The exceptional magnitude and duration of this “Great Sea-Ice Anomaly” was previously unknown. 19,000BC was chosen as the start date because this was the last glacial maximum, when the Earth's ice sheets were at their maximum extension. Size: 220 x 41 x 28mm (8.66 x 1.61 x 1.1 inches) Modern horses have come a long way since their prehistoric ancestors roamed the grasslands and prairies of Cenozoic North America. Climate projections forecast the total disappearance of summer sea ice in the Arctic by 2040, with the exception of one place—the Last Ice Area. Ice Age melting and rising seas Ice melted in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres during ice-age warm-ups. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no Global sea level rose by a total of more than 120 metres as the vast ice sheets of the last Ice Age melted back. The seasonal grazing lands of vast herds of bison and other animals were lost. Directors: Chris Wedge, Carlos Saldanha | Stars: Denis Leary, John Leguizamo, Ray Romano, Goran Visnjic Votes: 440,125 | Gross: $176.39M However, empirical evidence is fragmentary. The model results seemed too extreme to be realistic—so-called Ugly Duckling simulations—and researchers were concerned that they were showing problems with the models. As ice melted at the end of the last glacial period of the current ice age, sea levels rose and the land began to tilt in an isostatic adjustment as the huge weight of ice lessened. Sea ice acts as a cap on the surface preventing the water from gaining oxygen from the atmosphere. Sea ice caused the Little Ice Age in the 14th century, researchers say. Since planet Earth still has ice sheets, … The following is a list consisting of all songs featured in the Ice Age films, score songs not included. al. Arctic sea ice affects climate on seasonal to decadal time scales, and models suggest that sea ice is essential for longer anomalies such as the Little Ice Age. The ice sheet that covered much of Western Canada at the end of the last ice age melted earlier and more quickly than scientists thought, a new study suggests. Pg. The strait between Greenland and Svalbard is the only deep connection between the Arctic Ocean and the world’s oceans. A new study finds a trigger for the Little Ice Age that cooled Europe from the 1300s through mid-1800s, and supports surprising model results suggesting that under the right conditions sudden climate changes can occur spontaneously, without external forcing. Pg. Excerpts in italics with my bolds. (C) Northeast Greenland shelf, based on IP25 (21). He and his companion Maelstrom are the main antagonists of Ice Age: The Meltdown. The remarkable stability of our planetary climate system derives from feedbacks between internal parts of the system, providing the oscillations we observe as natural variability. October 18, 2020. This huge volume of ice lowered global sea level by around 120 meters as compared to today. Users can type in a place name or postcode to see how it was impacted by ice 22,000 years ago. Coastlines of the Ice Age May 28, 2017 January 7, 2020 Alex 0 Comments. or, by University of Colorado at Boulder. To geologists, an ice age is marked by the presence of large amounts of land-based ice. It’s seems to me that presently the oceans have been releasing heat into the atmosphere and keeping us warm the last five years. Massive ice sheets covered parts of North America, northern Europe, and several other regions during the last ice age. As seen in the animation, much of northern Europe and North America were covered in ice in 19,000BC. It serves as an indicator for ice physical properties, including snow cover, surface roughness, optical properties, melt pond coverage, salinity, and thickness (Tschudi et al. The reconstruction suggests that the Little Ice Age—which was not a true ice age but a regional cooling centered on Europe—was triggered by an exceptionally large outflow of … Massive ice sheets covered parts of North America, northern Europe, and several other regions during the last ice age. August 26, 2004 at 11:00 pm. Older ice tends to be thicker and thus more resilient to changes in atmospheric and oceanic forcing compared to younger ice. For sea ice, age matters. I believe a possible trigger for this event could be the following: a combination of negative anomalies of AMO, a return to negative of the PDO leading to an expansion of the Arctic ice, and the continuation of the expansion of the Antarctic ice – and the persistent low anomalies of southern oceans in recent years. Home > News > Antarctic sea ice found to play a key role in deep ocean deoxygenation during the last ice age. Here, we reconstruct sea ice exported from the Arctic Ocean over the past 1400 years, using a spatial network of proxy records. The climate, ie 30y HadSST3, is a integrated function of 11 solar cycles. 46, First of all, it should be noted that the signs of temperature and salinity anomalies coincide in most cases: a decreased salinity corresponds to enhanced temperature and vice versa. There may be one more round of reconstructions within the next 5 years, and then the TSI industry will all be mostly on the same page. Young, thin ice can melt very rapidly during a warm Arctic summer. Pg. googletag.cmd.push(function() { googletag.display('div-gpt-ad-1449240174198-2'); }); The study, published in Science Advances, reports a comprehensive reconstruction of sea ice transported from the Arctic Ocean through the Fram Strait, by Greenland, and into the North Atlantic Ocean over the last 1400 years. It is not necessary to investigate the cause-effect relationships between all these components in succession. I’ve had the privilege of meeting most of the scientists involved in TSI and hearing of their work firsthand at the last two LASP sun-climate symposiums to appreciate the difficulties in establishing the true TSI record. The simulation starts 21,000 years ago and ends 8,000 years in the future, showing the changes in ice concentration, sea level, and vegetation. This huge volume of ice lowered global sea level by around 120 meters as compared to today. One the hand, the new reconstruction provides robust evidence of a massive sea-ice anomaly that could have been triggered by increased explosive volcanism. Movie is distributed by United Motion Pictures - Egypt “The timing agrees quite well with the great eruptions from the 13th century. Share this: Facebook; Twitter; Reddit; Google Classroom; Email; Print; By Emily Sohn. See larger map – Sea Level During Last Ice Age “We discovered that an unusually large amount of sea ice flowed out of the Arctic Ocean from the beginning of the 14th century. We do not guarantee individual replies due to extremely high volume of correspondence. As the Ice Age melted down, sea level rose and the glaciers retreated. Sea Ice Age Data and Methods [3] The data used here are a reprocessed and extended version of the 1980–2007 series of sea ice age introduced by Fowler et al. [src] Rasmussen, known more colloquially as Raz, was a rough kangaroo that joined up with the piratical ape, Gutt's crew as a weapons expert. During the last ice age, sea levels dropped around 450 feet. The Pleistocene Epoch began about 2.6 million years ago and lasted until about 11,700 years ago. Below I provide excerpts from this extensive analysis to form a synopsis of their view: Component parts of the climate system interact so that Arctic Sea Ice varies within a range constrained by those internal forces. (E) West Greenland shelf, based on diatoms, five-point running average (33). The pulse of ice along East Greenland resulted in downstream increases in polar waters and ocean stratification, culminating ~1400 CE and sustained during subsequent centuries. Blue shading represents the period of increased sea ice spanning the 1300s CE. While consistent with external forcing theories, the onset and development are notably similar to modeled spontaneous abrupt cooling enhanced by sea-ice feedbacks. Larger map - Sea Level During Last Ice Age : Here is a comprehensive website on ice ages compiled by Jonathan Adams, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN. Shira was a female saber-toothed tiger and a distrusted first mate of the seafaring ape, Captain Gutt.She is the secondary antagonist of Ice Age: Continental Drift but she went on to leave her life at sea and joined the the herd as Diego's mate.. Shira lived in the Herd Valley happily married to Diego for many years to come and the sabers soon developed the urge to start a family. (D) Northeast Greenland shelf, based on benthic foraminifera (23). We find robust evidence for extreme export of sea ice commencing abruptly around 1300 CE and terminating in the late 1300s. (B) North Iceland shelf, sea ice based on IP25 (13). Older ice tends to be thicker and thus more resilient to changes in atmospheric and oceanic forcing compared to younger ice. HadSST3 finally fell last month indicating the effect of the 2018/19 positive ENSO conditions on the NH sea ice is essentially over, so I expect net NH ice gain this winter until more positive ENSO conditions prevail, which I contend won’t come about without more solar activity. Pg. During the last ice age, sea levels stood around 370 feet lower than today. Researchers pulled together records from marine sediment cores drilled from the ocean floor from the Arctic Ocean to the North Atlantic to get a detailed look at sea ice throughout the region over the last 1400 years. Here, we reconstruct sea ice exported from the Arctic Ocean over the past 1400 years, using a spatial network of proxy records. Cretaceous was an ichthyosaur1 that hunted animals during the ice age. Increasing Arctic freshwater is driven by climate change, Experiments with bifluoride ions show evidence of hybrid bonds, Evidence of water movement found in meteorites that only recently fell to Earth, Using the SYK model to examine the fast-charging process of quantum batteries, The Earth has been spinning faster lately, Extremely fast electrochromic supercapacitors. Sea ice is not only a reaction to climate change, but can also trigger climate change, Miles says. The 2020/21 winter is following the template I established in my 2018 AGU poster, “Extreme Weather Events and Climate Extremes are Limited by the Duration of Solar Cycle Irradiance Extremes”. This site uses cookies to assist with navigation, analyse your use of our services, and provide content from third parties. 2016). The paper is Evidence for extreme export of Arctic sea ice leading the abrupt onset of the Little Ice Age  Martin W. Miles et. Sea level during the last 10,000 years or so of the ice age was absolutely not stable, unlike recorded history, changing quite a bit even before the big Meltwater Pulse. It involved unusual winds, sea ice export, and a lot more ice east of Greenland, just as we found in here." Indirectly, this change will also affect the thermal state of the atmosphere. During an ice age, the water that normally goes into the Atlantic Ocean gets locked up on land as ice, which deprives the Mediterranean Sea of its main water sources; the Atlantic Ocean and the rivers that normally feed into the Mediterranean Sea. A Siberian heat wave in spring 2020 began this year’s Arctic sea ice melt season early, and with Arctic temperatures being 14 to 18 degrees Fahrenheit (8 to 10 degrees Celsius) warmer than average, the ice extent kept declining. Do you think this is possible? Although geologists describe the entire time period as an "ice age", in popular culture the term "ice age" is usually associated with just the most recent glacial period during the Pleistocene. Most of us are used to seasons. The provocative results show that external forcing from volcanoes or other causes may not be necessary for large swings in climate to occur. El Nino warming affects the SH less quickly and effectively as a result. "This massive belt of ice that comes streaming out of the Arctic—in the past and even today—goes all the way around Cape Farewell to around where these colonies were," Miles said. The reconstruction suggests that the Little Ice Age—which was not a true ice age but a regional cooling centered on Europe—was triggered by an exceptionally large outflow of sea ice from the Arctic Ocean into the North Atlantic in the 1300s. Thanks Ron, I am a little confused too about the abnormal heating of the N Pacific, but I’ve just discovered the following data of TSI [seems legit], following the hint of Bob’s post, and found that the recent TSI has had an *increasing* trend despite the low SSN. Sea Level During Last Ice Age (Link to Ice-Age maps below) During the last ice age (above) sea level was at least 394 feet (120 m) lower than it is today (below), exposing much more area on the continents. The historical TSI reconstruction you presented by Dudok de Wit et al 2017 is by now considered obsolete by most in the field, I think too by T. Dudok de Wit. 2020). Arctic sea ice affects climate on seasonal to decadal time scales, and models suggest that sea ice is essential for longer anomalies such as the Little Ice Age. Get weekly and/or daily updates delivered to your inbox. Arctic sea ice affects climate on seasonal to decadal time scales, and models suggest that sea ice is essential for longer anomalies such as the Little Ice Age. The film is a spin-off of the Ice Age franchise that focuses on the villains from Ice Age: Continental Drift.The film is also set between the events of Continental Drift and Ice Age: Collision Course. Figure 4.12. Mean resulting ice-drift pattern for summer (a) and winter (b) during the warm epoch and the difference between ice-drift vectors during the warm and cold epochs for summer (c) and winter (d). It takes only one super volcano eruption to bring in the next major Ice Age and thus such a drop in sea level as massive amounts of snow and ice accumulate on the continents.

ice age seas

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