Microsatellite markers for the closely related Pacific giant … Symbiotic prokaryotic communities from different populations of the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta. assess the population genetic structure of sponges. Some degraded reefs are characterized by high levels of sedimentation and low coral cover in this area, but support large populations of the ecologically important giant barrel sponge Xestospongia spp. The oldest giant barrel sponge found off the coast of Venezuela and estimated to be 2300 years old died from SOB in only a few weeks. , Demographics of increasing populations of the giant barrel sponge Xestospongia muta in the Florida Keys. Seawater samples were collected from the incurrent and excurrent flow of 35 sponges. Epinephelus morio. Symbiotic ties, bioactive compounds, and mysterious distributions of bacteria characterize these ancient invertebrates. 2015, Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 1, is found abundantly in reef communities. Lionfish. The giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta (Demo-spongiae: Haplosclerida) is a large and common member of Caribbean coral reef communities. Giant Barrel Sponges filter a tremendous amount of water throughout their lifespan (some living up to 2000 years) which increases water clarity, controls algae, and affects coral populations. Hooper, Gert Wörheide, Dirk Erpenbeck [Figure] Hospitable habitat. Ecological Archives E091-040-A1 Steven E. McMurray, Timothy P. Henkel, and Joseph R. Pawlik. the giant barrel sponge Xestospongia muta and the green branched sponge Iotrochota birotulata. > Symbiotic ties, bioactive compounds, and mysterious distributions of bacteria characterize these ancient invertebrates ! The giant barrel sponge Xestospongia muta a particularly important species; populations constitute a significant amount We have monitored permanent plots on reefs off Key Largo, Florida, USA, to study the demography of a particularly important species, the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta. Redwoods of the reef: new insights on the giant barrel sponge of the Caribbean By Joseph R. Pawlik, Ph.D., Professor . Giant barrel sponges, Xestospongia muta, are known as the “redwoods of the reef” as they are large (can be up to ~6 feet in height and ~3 feet across), long-lived (> 2,000 years old), and provide habitat for many reef species. Sponges take in water from the outside, which is funneled through small channels by rotating cilia.This is how they get their food. The giant barrel sponges Xestospongia muta and Xestospongia testudinaria are ubiquitous in tropical reefs of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, respectively. Diver collected cores of the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta, for a population genetic analysis. Although (1816) separated the sponges in a group Spongiaria allied to Protozoa. Populations of this spe-cies occupy greater than 9% of the available reef substrate in some regions (Zea 1993). spp. Department of Molecular Cellular and Biomedical Sciences, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire, 03824 . 2010. McMurray SE, Johnson ZI, Hunt DE, Pawlik JR, Finelli CM. Video recorded with liquid image co camera mask filmed at 1080p. Jessica K. Jarett. I knew they were sponges, but I hadn’t expected anything that large or abundant. 2016. Some sponges … Mustard hill coral. From 2000-2012, the density of the giant barrel sponge population increased by 44% on Pickles Reef, while on Conch Reef it more than doubled (fig 2)! Sponges with unknown chemical defense strategies comprised less than 1% of the total sponge assemblage. Green cactus algae. Populations of X. muta that have been monitored annually in plots on Conch and Pickles Reefs in the Florida Keys increased by as much as 122% between 2000 and 2012, raising questions about the processes structuring these growing populations. The giant barrel sponge, though living as a solitary sponge as seen in Fig. Xestospongia muta, the giant barrel sponge, is a key component of coral reef benthic communities in Southeast Florida and the Caribbean. Xestospongia muta increases habitat complexity and stability, and filters large volumes of water, enhancing water quality and facilitating nutrient cycling. The giant barrel sponge Xestospongia muta is a dominant reef constituent in the Caribbean. Contributions of transitions to the accelerated population decline of the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta, from 2000-2003 to 2003-2006 on Conch Reef. Giant barrel sponge. Search for more papers by this author. Sponges are a prominent component of coral reef ecosystems. Limnology and Oceanography 61 (4): 1271-1286. Sponges are an especially abundant and diverse group on Caribbean coral reefs that perform key community functions, however little is known about sponge demography. Giant barrel sponges, such as Xestospongia muta, are referred to by some as "Redwoods of the Reef." The morphology and physiology of sponges were first adequately understood by who created in 1836 the name Porifera for the group by which it is now generally known, iuxle (1875) and Sollas (1884) proposed the complete separation of sponges from other Metazoa on the grounds of many peculiarities. On the reefs oV Key Largo, Lettuce corals (Scleractinia; Agariciidae) Bicolor damselfish. Of the 239 sponges tagged in 2000, 66% survived to 2012. Giant barrel sponges may be affected by sponge orange band (SOB) disease; this is a disease specific to sponges, beginning with lesions on the pinacoderm and leading to bleaching that can be fatal within six weeks after infection. The giant barrel sponge is considered to be on the second trophic level, meaning that it is a primary consumer since it consumes photosynthetic cyanobacteria, which are primary producers (McMurray et al., 2008). Red grouper . Xestospongia muta. Population dynamics of giant barrel sponges on Florida coral reefs. From 2000 to 2006, population densities of X. muta significantly increased at sites on Conch Reef by a mean of 46% (range = 16-108%) and on Pickles Reef by a mean of 33%. Ecology 91 , 560 – 570 ( 2010 ). Halimeda. McMurray SE, Pawlik JR, Finelli CM. Giant barrel sponges in the genus Xestospongia may be among the largest benthic invertebrates providing habitat and fulfilling ecosystem services on reefs where coral is declining. The giant barrel sponge Xestospongia muta is one of the largest and most important components of Caribbean coral reef communities. We examined the carbon flux mediated by the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia testudinaria, on reefs in the Red Sea across an inshore–offshore gradient that had previously been proposed to affect sponge nutrition in other parts of the tropics. This group of sponges are known to reach massive sizes and ages of 2000 years or more in warm Caribbean seas (Van Soest, 2012). Sponges with unknown chemical defense strategies comprised less than 1% of the total sponge assemblage. From 2000 to 2006, population densities of X. muta significantly increased at sites on Conch Reef by a mean of 46% (range = 16–108%) and on Pickles Reef by a mean of 33%. The giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta, is prominent in many locations; on reefs off Key Largo, Florida, populations increased 46% over a six-year period beginning 2000. Contrasting Patterns of Population Structure and Dispersal for the Giant Barrel Sponge (Xestospongia muta) within the Florida Reef Tract and Caribbean Vince RICHARDS*1, Kevin FELDHEIM2, Mahmood SHIVJI1 1The National Coral Reef Institute, Oceanographic Center, Nova SE University, Florida 33004 USA, Dania Beach, FL, 2Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois 60605 USA, Chicago, IL The giant barrel sponge Xestospongia muta is a dominant member of Caribbean reef ecosystems. The most common variably defended sponges were the giant barrel sponge Xestospongia muta and the green branched sponge Iotrochota birotulata. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 473: 73-80. populations of the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta Cara L. Fiore, Jessica K. Jarett & Michael P. Lesser Department of Molecular Cellular and Biomedical Sciences, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire 03824 Keywords Bacteria, sponge, symbiosis. Description. These sponges also serve as a habitat for many other species such as other invertebrates, benthic fish, bacteria, and cyanobacteria. Like reef-building corals, some sponges have been reported to bleach and die. 2014. However, little is known about its population structure and gene flow. Photograph: Joseph R. Pawlik. Porites astreoides. Stegastes partitus. doi: 10.1890/08-2060.1 pmid: … POPULATION ECOLOGY. The water is … Selective feeding by the giant barrel sponge enhances foraging efficiency. Tissues of X. muta contain cyanobacterial symbionts of the Synechococcus group. Population dynamics of giant barrel sponges on Florida coral reefs. I saw them on my first SCUBA dive off Grand Bahama Island in 1978: large, partially hollow cylinders on the slope of the coral reef; brown barrels, some as large as oil drums. No caption available Advertisement They are key species in their respective environments and are hosts to diverse assemblages of bacteria. We have monitored permanent plots on reefs off Key Largo, Florida, USA, to study the demography of a particularly important species, the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta. MtDNA diversity of the Indonesian giant barrel sponge Xestospongia testudinaria (Porifera: Haplosclerida) – implications from partial cytochrome oxidase 1 sequences - Volume 96 Special Issue - Edwin Setiawan, Nicole J. de Voogd, Thomas Swierts, John N.A. This means that the increase in giant sponge density was in part due to the sponges growing and expanding, but also in part due to new recruits. Pterois volitans. Populations of the giant barrel sponge (Xestospongia muta), a common Caribbean species that can live for centuries (McMurray et al. The 5'-end fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit I is often used to address these kinds of questions, but it presents very low intraspecific nucleotide variability in sponges. Cara L. Fiore. Correspondence Department of Molecular, Cellular and Biomedical Sciences, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824. 2008) and grow to more than a meter in height and diameter (figure 1), have increased by 122% over the period 2000–2012 on Conch Reef in … A modest-sized giant barrel sponge can pump 15,000 litres per hour, giving a weekly volume roughly equal to that of an Olympic-sized swimming pool.