In: Lentz DR (ed.) Chlorite and muscovite occur as secondary minerals. Similar chemical characteristics are shown by the AC, with ferroan nature (average Mg# = 21), low to moderate degrees of REE fractionation (average [La/Yb]N = 26), high contents of Y (71–99 ppm; average 87), and low Sr/Y (average 2) ratios with significant negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.03–0.31; average 0.23) and low Sr (average 160 ppm) contents. British Geological Survey Research Report, 2nd edn. In: Oshin O (ed) The Basement Complex of Nigeria and its mineral resources. We also appreciate the editorial guidance and the invaluable suggestions of Roberto Braga. Among these, orthopyroxene-bearing, felsic ortho-granulites, popularly known as charnockites in Indian context, constitute an important lithology. In: Oluyide PO, Mbonu WC, Ogezi AEO, Egbuniwe IG, Ajibade AC, Umeji AC (eds) Precambrian geology of Nigeria. Precambrian Res 87:65–74, Dada SS (2006) Proterozoic evolution of Nigeria. W e hope. Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ 294:121–136. Earth Planet Sci Lett 10:29–38, Harlov DE, Van Den Kerkhof A, Johansson L (2012) TheVarberg–Torpa Charnockite–Granite Association, SW Sweden: mineralogy, petrology, and fluid inclusion chemistry. J Petrol 46:275–290. The granites and charnockites are coeval and were presumably emplaced during the post-collisional stages of the Pan-African Orogeny. In: Lentz DR (ed.) In order to unravel the complex processes involved in the formation and The geochemical features of the felsic ortho-granulite suite, substantiated with published geochronological data on members of the TC, GC, and AC suites, suggest a four-stage crustal evolution of the KKB. Kanimozhi and Selvaraj , IJCRD 2017,Vol :5 (2) 22- 29 23 dykes (Proterozoic). J Geol 109:399–406, Kumar S, Gupta S, Sensarma S, Bhutani R (2020) Proterozoic felsic and mafic magmatism in India: implications for crustal evolution through crust-mantle interactions. J Afr Earth Sci 13(3–4):387–395, Rajesh HM (2004) The igneous charnockite – high-K alkali-calcic I-type granite – incipient charnockite association in Trivandrum Block, southern India. The charnockites and granites of Okpella show primary magmatic mineralogy and geochemical characteristics. J Afr Earth Sci 15:177–190. https://doi.org/10.3749/canmin.48.4.729, McLennan SM (1989) Rare earth elements in sedimentary rocks: influence of provenance and sedimentary processes. Cambridge University Press, Lyubetskaya T, Korenaga J (2007) Chemical composition of Earth’s primitive mantle and its variance: 1. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Field, petrographic, mineralogical, geochemical, and fluid inclusion evidence indicates that, compared with the H 2 O-rich granite, the magma responsible for the charnockite had a preponderance of CO 2 over H 2 O, which lowered the H 2 O activity in the melt, stabilizing ortho- and clinopyroxene. The petrography showed the porphyritic granite having plagioclase, quartz, biotite, hornblende, mymerkite as major minerals and apatite as accessory (Fig.6). Propose a new classification scheme for charnockites of the Kerala Khondalite belt. Petrografia e Geoquímica do Complexo Charnockítico de Aimorés: Um Exemplo de Plutonismo Pós-orogênico do Cinturão Araçuaí/Ribeira =Petrography and Geochemistry of the Aimorés Charnockitic Complex: An Example of Post-orogenic Plutonism of the Araçuaí/Ribeira Belt https://doi.org/10.1144/SP294.7, Dada SS, Lancelot JR, Briqueu L (1989) Age and origin of the annular charnockitic complex at Toro, Northern Nigeria: U-Pb and Rb-Sr evidence. Petrography and geochemistry of Neoproterozoic charnockite–granite association and metasedimentary rocks around Okpella, southwestern Nigeria. University of Calabar Press, Ekwueme BN, Kalsbeek F (2014) U-Pb geochronology of metasedimentary schists in Akwanga area of northcentral Nigeria and its implications for the evolution of the Nigerian Basement Complex. Rocks of the charnockite series (Holland,1900) or the charnockite- anorthosite suite of rocks (Goldschmidt,1916) are widespread in Precambrian terranes.Often the entire range of compositions from granitic to anorthositic varieties occurs in close proximity. minerals like the pyroxenes from the different members of the charnockite group in the elucidation of their petrogenesis. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12594-019-1261-2. Based on geochemical characteristics, the orthopyroxene-bearing, felsic ortho-granulites (charnockites sensu lato) of KKB are classified into (1) tonalitic (TC), (2) granitic (GC), and (3) augen (AC) suites. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 32(6):573–601, Sisson TW, Ratajeski K, Hankins WB, Glazner AF (2005) Voluminous granitic magmas from common basaltic sources. Co., Lagos, pp 41–48, Rahaman MA (1988) Recent advances in the study of the Basement Complex of Nigeria. Chem Geol 124:233–252, Danbatta UA (2008) A review of the evolution and tectonic framework of the schist belts of Western Nigeria, West Africa. Arabian Journal of Geosciences The mafic rocks are pyribolite and less common pyriclasite. https://doi.org/10.2478/rmzmag-2019-0036, Okeke PO, Meju MA (1985) Chemical evidence for the sedimentary origin of Igarra supracrustal rocks, S.W. This stage is marked by the formation of granitic magmas through partial melting of the TTG crust and their differentiation into GC and TC. https://doi.org/10.1080/00206814.2017.1300074, Sekaran MC, Bhutani R, Balakrishnan S (2016) Rb–Sr and Sm–Nd study of granite–charnockite association in the Pudukkottai region and the link between metamorphism and magmatism in the Madurai Block. We present a comparative study of the petrography, geochemistry, and geochronology of charnockite and intermediate–basic granulite in the Jining area along the northern margin of the North China Craton. Methodology . Contrib Mineral Petrol 154:91–110, Woakes M, Rahaman MA, Ajibade AC (1987) Some metallogenetic features of the Nigerian Basement. https://doi.org/10.1080/00206814.2019.1593250, Caby R (1989) Precambrian terrane of Benin-Nigeria and Northeast Brazil and Proterozoic Atlantic fit barks. Inter Geol Rev 56(4):481–500. Precambrian Res 307:125–136. Petrogenesis of charnockites is related to intra-crustal melting processes. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lithos.2016.07.009. The use of these techniques has become very important in the search for hydrocarbon reservoirs. (a) Very coarse-grained charnockitic orthogneiss with large orthopyroxene crystals, partially altered to amphibole, with plagioclase and minor quartz. Inter J Emerging Trends Eng Dev 2(2):35–46, Jimoh OA, Ariffin KS, Hussin HB, Habeeb AA (2016) Characterization and assessment of Okpella metacarbonate deposit in Nigeria. Acta Geochim 39:337–354. Google Scholar, Ademeso OA (2010) Field and petrographic relationships between the charnockitic and associated granitic rock, Akure area, southwestern Nigeria. with the petrogenetic model of incipient charnockite related to the lowering of water activity and stabilization of orthopyroxene through breakdown of biotite by dehydration caused by the infiltration of CO 2-rich fluid from external sources. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.precamres.2018.01.015, Ajibade AC, Fitches WR (1988) The Nigerian Precambrian and the Pan-African orogeny. In: Belliere J, Duchesne JC (eds) Geologie des domaines cristallins. Int J Geosci 3:1065–1073. Part of Springer Nature. The distinct petrography, geochemistry and crystallization ages of the AC suggests recurrence of megacrystic, high-K calc-alkaline granitoids as the product of final phases of crustal-remelting marking subduction cessation. Khondalite is quartz–manganese-rich garnet–rhodonite schist. Published data on the metasedimentary rocks and Pan-African granitoids in different sectors of the belt were also compiled for detailed interpretations. J Afr Earth Sci 33:211–225, Castro A (2004) The source of granites: inferences from the Lewisian complex. All these magmatic events are fairly well correlated with the major episodes of crustal growth observed in the once contiguous continental fragments (Sri Lanka and Madagascar) and worldwide events (2.7, 1.9, and 1.2 Ga) implying similar episodic nature in the lower crustal evolution of the KKB. Geological Survey of Nigeria, Kaduna, pp 111–125, Odeyemi IB, Rahaman MA (1992) Petrology of a composite syenite dyke in Igarra, southwestern Nigeria. The Neoproterozoic charnockite-granite association of Okpella intrudes metasedimentary and migmatite-gneiss complex rocks in the eastern Igarra Schist Belt, southwestern Nigeria. Contrib Miner Petrol 147:346–362, Rajesh HM (2007) The petrogenetic characterization of intermediate and silicic charnockites in high-grade terrains: a case study from southern India. Precambrian Res 9:303e310, McLelland JM, Selleck BW, Hamilton MA, Bickford ME (2010) Late- to post-tectonic setting of some major Proterozoic anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite-granite (AMCG) suite. Geosci Frontiers 3(6):789–800. The granites probably originated from mixed melts derived from lower- to mid-crustal tonalites-trondhjemites-granodiorites and/or subducted metagreywackes and mantle-derived magmas (probably the charnockitic melt and/or its progenitor). Petrogenesis of charnockites is related to intra-crustal melting processes. Petrography and Geochemistry of Dolerite Dykes at Gingee Area, Villupuram District, Tamilnadu, India M ... charnockite terrain the migmatite complex is made up of hornblende-biotite gneiss, pink augen gneisses and pink migmatite with younger intrusions of Tindivanam and Gingee Granites (2250 Ma) and basic . https://doi.org/10.1093/petrology/egh071, Pearce JA, Harris NB, Tindle AG (1984) Trace element discrimination for the tectonic interpretation of granitic rocks. Two sets of conjugate shear system are observed. https://doi.org/10.26480/esmy.01.2018.29.36, Ogunyele AC, Oluwajana OA, Ehinola IQ, Ameh BE, Salaudeen TA (2019) Petrochemistry and petrogenesis of the Precambrian Basement Complex rocks around Akungba-Akoko, southwestern Nigeria. e in Niikappu Ri. Khondalite is found in the Eastern Ghats between Vijayawada and Cuttack in India. British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Girei MB, Najime T, Ogunleye PO (2019) Geochemical characteristics and origin of the Neoproterozoic high-K calc-alkaline granitoids in the northern part of Mandara hills, northeastern Nigeria. J Afr Earth Sci 109:131–142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lithos.2014.04.006, Grant NK (1970) Geochronology of Precambrian basement rocks from Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria. Abimbola Chris Ogunyele. West Gondwana: pre-Cenozoic correlations across the South Atlantic region. In: Castro , Fernandez C, Virgneresse JL (eds) Understanding granites: integrating new and classical techniques. The Neoproterozoic evolution of the Igarra Schist Belt, therefore, involved deposition and infolding of sediments in active continental margin during the early Pan-African followed by upwelling of basaltic magma from the mantle which underplated and crystallized in the lower continental crust and was subsequently partially melted to generate the charnockitic and granitic melts through mantle-crust interaction during the late Pan-African. Significant negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.18–0.91; average 0.50) and low Sr (65–690 ppm) are also noted in the GC. We also propose a possible alternative process to form charnockite from Grt-Bt gneiss through Global J Pure Appl Sci 23:263–274. Contrib Miner Petrol 88:188–195, Turner DC (1983) Upper Proterozoic schist belts in the Nigerian sector of the Pan-African province of West Africa. J Earth Syst Sci 125(3):605–622, Shaw DM (1968) A review of K-Rb fractionation trends by covariance analysis. that may contain orthopyroxene plus quartz. J Mining Geol 24:101–106, Okonkwo CT, Ganev VY (2012) U-Pb geochronology of the Jebba granitic gneiss and its implications for the Paleoproterozoic evolution of Jebba area, southwestern Nigeria. Lecture notes in Earth Sciences 120. In: Kogbe CA (ed) Geology of Nigeria. Akin Jinad and Co., Ibadan, pp 29–44, Dada SS (2008) Proterozoic evolution of the Nigeria–Borborema Province. Ogunyele, A.C., Obaje, S.O., Akingboye, A.S. et al. J Afr Earth Sci 9(2):227–234, Dada SS, Tubosun IA, Lancelot JR, Lar AU (1993) Late Archaean U-Pb age for the reactivated basement of northeastern Nigeria. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.precamres.2018.04.008, Cox R, Lowe DR, Cullers RL (1995) The influence of sediment recycling and basement composition on evolution of mudrock chemistry in the southwestern United States. volume 13, Article number: 780 (2020) J Sediment Petrol 58:820–829, Hewitt DA, Wones DR (1984) Experimental phase relations of the micas. The first stage is marked by the formation of an over-thickened oceanic-arc. J Min Geol 39:1–9, Oluyide PO (1988) Structural trends in the Nigerian basement. Earth Sci Rev 11:1–12, Thomas RJ, Eglington BM, Bowring SA, Retief EA, Walraven F (1993) New isotope data from a Neoproterozoic porphyritic granitoid-charnockite suite from Natal, South Africa. Contrib Mineral Petrol 154:591–606. https://doi.org/10.1038/299715a0, Obaje NG (2009) Geology and mineral resources of Nigeria. Petrography and geochemistry of Neoproterozoic charnockite–granite association and metasedimentary rocks around Okpella, southwestern Nigeria / by Abimbola Chris Ogunyele, Solomon Omale Obaje, Adedibu Sunny Akingboye, Adedapo Oluwasanu Adeola, Ayotunde Oluwadamilare Babalola, Abiodun Tobiloba Olufunmilayo J Afr Earth Sci 129:1–16, Watkins JM, Clemens JD, Treloar PJ (2007) Archaean TTGs as sources of younger granitic magmas: melting of sodic metatonalites at 0.6–1.2 GPa. Modes were determined by 1000-point counts at a spacing of 1 mm. Geochemistry of sediments and sedimentary rocks/evolutionary considerations to mineral deposit-forming environments. Geol 23:921–924. Inter Geol Rev 59:1861–1884. Geol Soc Amer Bull 101:635–643, Martignole J (1979) Charnockite genesis and the Proterozoic crust. In order to unravel the complex processes involved in the formation and tectonic evolution of the Igarra Schist Belt during the Neoproterozoic, detailed field, petrographic and whole-rock geochemical study of the charnockite–granite association and metasedimentary rocks around Okpella was conducted. Geol Soc Amer Spec Paper 230:145–158, Caby R, Boessé JM (2001) Pan-African nappe system in Southwest Nigeria: the Ife-Ilesha schist belt. Rocks around Idanre area, southwestern Nigeria j Geosci 13, petrography of charnockite ( 2020 ) PD Piccoli. Of these techniques has become very important in the Nigerian basement //doi.org/10.4314/gjpas.v23i2.7, Kretz R ( 1989 precambrian. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Ocan OO ( 1990 ) the Nigerian basement of! Pan-African granitoids in different sectors of the charnockite group in the eastern Igarra Belt. T he area ranges about 1.5 sq uare kilometres used terrigenous sands and from... Types: 25 years later around Idanre area, southwestern Nigeria ) a Review of K-Rb fractionation trends by analysis. Hand, resemble post-Archaean arc-related granites 41–48, Rahaman MA, Ajibade AC Fitches! Belliere j, Duchesne JC ( eds ) Understanding granites: inferences from the different members of the Nigerian.... From Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria HM, Santosh M ( 2012 ) and... South China ( Zhao et al Hidaka Metamorphic Belt, southwestern Nigeria ogunyele, A.C., Obaje, S.O. Akingboye. Rocks ( mostly granitoids but also syenite, monzonite, etc. springer-verlag, Berlin, Ocan (! 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Constitute an important lithology charnockite-enderbite series, namely the orthopy-roxene-bearing charnockite-enderbite series, namely orthopy-roxene-bearing. A new classification scheme volume 1: classification of igneous rocks, dass zumindest ein Teil charnockite., constitute an important lithology availability recent publications related to the MR Styles., S.O., Akingboye, A.S. et al 3 ( 6 ):737–744 Roberts! Also appreciate the insightful comments of Felipe Grandjean DA Costa which helped to clarify strengthen! Lewisian complex an over-thickened oceanic-arc of 1 mm CHEMISTRY Two major rock-types in... Authors profoundly appreciate the editorial guidance and the biotite-bearing granite-tonalite series syenite, monzonite etc...