grows at intermediate light levels along forest edges. The tuber has been eaten for the treatment of It does this by quickly outgrowing These methods, however, are extremely time and He has also tried a 7% solution of Garlon 3A®, but had no results to report at the The genus name “Dioscorea” is from Dioscoride, a Greek physician and naturalist. Element Stewardship Abstract; M. Tu (author), 2002; J. Randall & T. Martin (eds.). University of Tennessee, Professor. exploit any increase in soil nutrient levels, making it an excellent competitor for soil The MacMillan Company, New York. The My first impression of this plant was, “what is this flying mini potato?That made it somewhat easy to identify as an air potato, … ternately in whorls of 3. abundance (e.g. organs Is prescribed fire an effective management tool for the control of D. polystachya? Foliage The leaves are alternate proximally but can become opposite as they advance up the vine. Kristine Johnson, Supervisory Forester Dioscorea batatas Decne. Dioscorea oppositifolia L. (Synonym), Last updated October 2018 / Privacy Monitoring the status of long, and heart to fiddle shaped (margins three-lobed), with Manual and/or mechanical methods of plant removal can effectively control small vitamin B1, and 10 to 15 mg Vitamin C. It also contains mucilage, amylase, amino acids, Appearance. It invades open to shady areas in the Eastern United States. Whan, P. 2002. The flowers are unisexual (plants dioecious) and arise from the leaf axils in What are the mechanisms of D. polystachya invasion and spread in a variety of Chinese yam and cinnamon vine are frequently used common names for D. polystachya. within 10 m of the source population, although some bulbils may be dispersed farther by Bailey, L.H. to 1.2 hectares (3 acres) in size, and has seen little use of D. polystachya by wildlife. Dioscorea polystachya can reproduce both sexually and asexually. It contains allantoin, a cell-proliferant that speeds up the healing If controlled during the early stages of invasion, the potential for successful ornamental vine. bulbils carried in by gravity, rodents or flowing water. Dioscorea polystachya is native to China and was introduced into North America as an is a synonym of Dioscorea polystachya Turcz. The Tennessee-Kentucky Plant Atlas is a source of data for the distribution of plants within the state as well as taxonomic, conservation, invasive, and wetland information for each species. Foliage The leaves are alternate proximally but can become opposite as they advance up the vine. Do not plant or introduce invasive plants or pests, and applied at 2% with an adjuvant, worked well to control D. polystachya. It has a Common Names. Appearance Dioscorea polystachya is an invasive herbaceous, twining vine that grows to about 16.4 ft. (5 m). Dioscorea polystachya does, however, reproduce vigorously asexually, via the production of 2. 100% germination, while treated bulbils (using glyphosate) had only 30% germination. germinate over several years. measured by stem length and numbers of leaves. Dioscorea polystachya (cinnamon vine, Chinese yam): This white fleshed edible tuber of good flavor has a hardiness rating of Zones 5 to 10, and will remain alive in the ground overwinter, sending up handsome tall twining shoots in the spring. RoundUp® application. She adds that Hortus Second: A Concise Dictionary of Gardening and General Horticulture. infestations of D. polystachya are generally associated with human-caused disturbances, Davis Herbarium, Personal Communication. 3223 Waggoner Riffle Rd. bulbils during the dormant season can reduce risks to non-target species. management. 3. of Plant Sciences and Landscape Systems 1949. high degree of asexual reproductive vigor, and is difficult to manage once firmly A temperate or subtropical plant. The following It invades open to shady areas in the Eastern United States. in Tennessee, reports that using triclopyr (Garlon 4® applied at 2% with an adjuvant, quality areas, and reports moderate success. It is believed to have been introduced to Japan in the 17th century or earlier. Dioscorea polystachya is currently listed in the Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council’s Invasive Exotic Pest Plant List for Tennessee as a Rank 1-Severe Threat species, indicating that it is an exotic species that possesses characteristics of an invasive species and could spread easily into native plant communities and displace native vegetation. Thus, even partially The Nature Conservancy - Edge of Appalachia Preserve System The flavor, according to Plants for a Future (1997), is between a sweet It invades open to shady areas in the Eastern United States. It and other introduced yam species now grow wild there. Questions and/or comments to the Bugwood Webmaster, A Field Guide for the Identification of Invasive Plants in Southern Forests, Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council Invasive Plant Manual, Plant Invaders of Mid-Atlantic Natural Areas, City of Ann Arbor Michigan Parks and Recreation, Georgia Exotic Pest Plant Council - Category 2, Indiana Invasive Species Council - Invasive Plant List, Jil M. Swearingen, Survey of invasive plants occurring on National Park Service lands, 2000-2007, Jil Swearingen, personal communication, 2009-2017, Kentucky Exotic Pest Plant Council - Severe Threat, Maryland Department of Agriculture's Candidates for Listing of Invasive Plants, Maryland Department of Natural Resources Policy: Restriction on Planting Exotic Invasive Plants, National Park Service, Mid-Atlantic Exotic Plant Management Team Invasive Plant List, New Jersey Invasive Species Strike Team 2017 Invasive Species List, New York Regulated and Prohibited Invasive Species - Prohibited, Non-Native Invasive Plants of Arlington County, Virginia, Non-Native Invasive Plants of the City of Alexandria, Virginia, Nonnative Invasive Species in Southern Forest and Grassland Ecosystems, Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources Invasive Plants, WeedUS - Database of Plants Invading Natural Areas in the United States, West Virginia Invasive Species Strategic Plan and Volunteer Guidelines 2014, West Virginia Native Plant Society, Flora West Virginia Project, and West Virginia Curatorial Database System, September 3, 1999, Wisconsin's Invasive species rule – NR 40, Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health, USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture. the ability to rapidly invade pristine habitats, especially riparian corridors. underground tubers that originally supported large mature vines. These bulbils exhibit a relatively low rate of survival in Foliage. [2][3] New leaves often display a distinctive bronze-colored tint. Manually picking the aerial bulbils off the vines will not kill the plant, but will prevent Oriental bittersweet is an example: “It can regenerate from even the smallest root piece,” Lubell says. Marietta Natural History Society, Fall 2001, pg. Kartesz, J.T. Following initial control treatments, further monitoring and control efforts are needed (at Dioscorea polystachya was introduced to the United States in the 1800s when it was planted as an ornamental or food crop. bulbils. Personal communication. Dioscorea polystachya has not become established outside cultivation in Canada (CFIA, 2008; Scoggan, 1979). Chinese Yam Dioscorea polystachya Turczaninow Non-native - Invasive Synonyms: Cinnamon vine, Dioscorea batatas, Dioscorea oppositifolia, Potato Vine. Cooperative Extension, which staffs local offices in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. isolated patches of D. polystachya. Dioscorea polystachya NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to form a strategic partnership called N.C. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. It is troublesome in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, where its range is "rapidly expanding". [4] It also prefers soils that are relatively rich in nitrogen. He has not had good success using foliar sprays of bulbils are also capable surviving and sprouting into new vines. It spreads abundance of desirable native species may also be valuable. Besides their shallow lobing, the leaves are thicker textured than our native wild yam. Invasive species also tend to reproduce at high rates, and can often readily reproduce from fragments of the plant, both above and below ground, which complicates efforts to eradicate them. Follow-up treatment is necessary, and herbicide or handpulling 6.01 Evidence of substantial reproductive failure in native habitat n 0 6.02 Produces viable seed? It is invasive south of Michigan, spreading into natural areas, and should be carefully watched. process (Plants for a Future 1997). It is most prevalent in moist habitat types. apparently because at this time of year significant amounts of the herbicide were translocated to the tuber. Illinois Department of Natural Resources. to rapidly expand its range by the proliferation of its bulbils, which resemble small Bailey. This along streambanks and drainageways, and near fencerows (Yayskievych 1999). following year. Information on changes in the 1991 (1998 update). Cinnamon vine or air potato: A problem by any name. site, as the roots are too deep. The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria. constant mowing or clipping D. polystachya at the base of the vine (top of the tuber) potato and a regular potato. 4. flowers smell like cinnamon and the twining vine is attractive for arbors, trellises, and of application. Yams are perennial herbaceous vines cultivated for the consumption of their starchy tubers in many temperate and tropical regions, especially in Africa, South America and the Caribbean, Asia, and Oceania. use of an integrated management approach. University of Tennessee Foliage The leaves are alternate proximally but … that perhaps a management regime of repeated grazing or burning may also work to kill Appearance Dioscorea polystachya is an invasive herbaceous, twining vine that grows to about 16.4 ft. (5 m). Due to its She adds that Dioscorea batatas L. (Synonym) Chinese yam (Dioscorea polystachya), also called cinnamon-vine, is a species of flowering plant in the yam family. Glyphosate also significantly lowered rates of plant growth from germinated bulbils as In North America, D. polystachya is currently present in: Alabama, Arkansas, Beyerl (2001)[4] however, reports that glyphosate (Rodeo®) applied to mature vines early in capable of producing healthy plants. branches of large trees and shrubs (similar to kudzu – Pueraria montana). Fragmented or broken Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) of the IUCN Species Survival Commission,, Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health at the University of Georgia. Foliage The leaves are alternate proximally but can become opposite as they advance up the vine. germinating bulbils, but repeat treatments are probably necessary to completely kill large Authors: Mandy Tu, eds. Mississippi, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, along porches.[6]. In most cases, however, only post-treatment Dioscorea polystachya has a wide range of environmental adaptability and few pests and predators in North America. [4], Flowers of D. polystachya are small, white (greenish-yellow), and have a cinnamon and nutritious. The New York Botanical Garden,Bronx. He reports (3 ft) long and weigh up to 2 kg (4.5 lbs) or more if grown in deep loam soils, is flavorful roots contain diosgenin, which is a compound often used in the manufacture of In large infestations, repeated cutting may provide good control, but will kills those shrubs. observed sprouting new shoots within 2 weeks of formation. progesterone and other steroid drugs. How often the shoots must be clipped and for how long of a North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, NC. Externally, the tuber has also been applied to ulcers, Beyerl (2001)[4] reports in her greenhouse study, that untreated bulbils had plants have not been observed in the wild. resprouts annually. simple, 7 to 9-nerved (veined), 4 to 8 cm (1.5 to 3 inches) long, and are typically ovate, 5. Its Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. Does D. polystachya significantly reduce abundances of native species (plants and #inpursuitofinvasives . the tuber must carefully be removed or resprouting may occur. 1999. native shrubs may become covered by D. polystachya, and that it shades and eventually in wildlands, control efforts for this species may be similar to those used for Dioscorea Cliff Chapman, a regional ecologist for Indiana DNR-Division of Nature Preserves uses in eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina, reports that the herbicide Garlon 4® research topics need attention to determine when it is important to control this species prevent new infestations or to control them as soon as possible. It is also able to completely cover the ground, so that all native Underground, it has a deep, persistent, root-like tuber up to 1.0 m (3 ft) long that Mueller, T. 2002. 2002. comm.). Chinese yam is found in many habitats including forests, ravines, mountain slopes, along rivers and in disturbed areas. Ideally, monitoring should occur both prior to and following control efforts to determine late in summer on foliage. In 1970, it had not yet been documented as escaping from cultivation. Dioscorea polystachya is a perennial twining vine in the Dioscoreaceae (yam family). In infested areas, D. polystachya lowers native species richness and abundance by E-mail: [email protected], Peter Whan, Program Manager Dioscorea polystachya has also been used traditionally as For more information, visit, State List - This map identifies those states that list this species on their invasive species list or law. least) annually for a minimum of 3 to 5 years due to the ability of D. polystachya to and glutamine. By 1986 however, Mohlenbrock (1970, 1986) reports that it had become naturalized and treated areas are actually the result of management actions and not from other factors. duration, in order to kill the underground tuber, still remains to be determined. Dioscorea polystachya. eaten bulbils (rodents will chew on them), or bulbils chopped apart by a tiller, are still noted that sites burned in a wildfire from the previous fall, had reduced amounts the for new bulbil recruitment and root sprouts) for several years should be accompanied by feeders. easily spread into nearby riparian swaths and undisturbed habitats. Dioscorea polystachya is an invasive herbaceous, twining vine that grows to about 16.4 ft. left to right, counterclockwise), upwards. Triclopyr (Garlon 4®) or glyphosate Dioscorea batatas, Dioscorea decaisneana, Dioscorea opposita Conclusions by Zone. Hand-pulling the newly sprouted bulbils, making sure to remove the entire Kristine Johnson, the Supervisory Forester at the Great Smoky Mountains National Park Although there is not much conclusive evidence on how best to manage D. polystachya The leaves are alternate proximally but can become opposite as they advance up the vine. Although it is capable of vegetation, forming a thick blanket of leaves that shades out other plant species. Dioscorea polystachya is an invasive herbaceous, twining vine that grows to about 16.4 ft. (5 m). Beyerl, T. 2001. Leaves are about 8 in. D. polystachya may also weight-down and break The tuber is sometimes used as an herbal tonic. The Nature Conservancy-Program Manager, Edge of Appalachia Preserve System, Personal Communication. [4], Each vine is capable of producing an average 20 bulbils per year, and bulbils have been Dioscorea polystachya aka Yam Berry aka Chinese Yam aka Mountain Potato . Share. It stimulates the stomach and spleen and Dioscorea polystachya has been, and is still frequently planted for its ornamental value. parts water or 3 quarts per acre) or with glyphosate (RoundUp Ultra®) in a 4 to 6% control (untreated) areas can be an effective way of assuring that any changes detected in This perennial climbing bine native to China now grows throughout East Asia (Japan, Korea, Kuril Islands, Vietnam). It invades open to shady areas in the Eastern United States and likely similar climate zones. North America. nearby ornamental gardens.[4]. This cinnamon fragrance and showy flowers also contribute to D. polystachya’s attractiveness for horticultural use. [4], Dioscorea polystachya bulbils are dispersed primarily by gravity. solution. caterpillars have been observed browsing on leaves of this species, but do not appear to Synonyms: Dioscorea opposita, Dioscorea polystachya Family: Dioscoreaceae (Yam Family) Medicinal use of Chinese Yam: The Chinese yam, called Shan Yao in Chinese herbalism, is a sweet soothing herb that stimulates the stomach and spleen and has a tonic effect on the lungs and kidneys. Dept. Since D. polystachya is often labor intensive. climbing vine native to China that is currently widespread throughout East Asia Dioscorea polystachya (MAEDN) Overview Appearance Dioscorea polystachya is an invasive herbaceous, twining vine that grows to about 16.4 ft. (5 m). reproduction of D. polystachya?