<>>> We examined cross-cultural consumer behavior publications which have appeared in four major marketing journals and proceedings, Journal of Consumer Research, Journal of Marketing, Journal of Marketing Research, and Advances in Consumer Research over a twenty-year period ranging from 1970-1990. 16, ed. Belk, Russell W., (1984), "Cultural and Historical Differences in Concepts of Self and Their Effects on Attitudes Toward Having and Giving," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. In contrast, studies of Europe are more likely to be cross-national (i.e., comparing consumer behavior in the U.S. with that of a Western European country, as noted with an "N" in Figure 3). Arnould, Eric J. Douglas, Susan P. (1987), "Emerging Consumer Markets in Japan," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 14, eds. The first three papers address new motivational and cognitive patterns associated with cultural self-construals. As Mick (1986) notes, meaning is not an individual enterprise, but rather "a social procedure for defining objects to achieve a practical effect" (p. 204). Examinations of the Hispanic subculture has produced a number of theoretical observations on the assimilation and acculturation of Hispanic consumer behavior; likewise, it is time to re-examine the consumer behavior of the African-American culture with a fresh perspective. Much research on cross-cultural consumer. Save time and never re-search. 2 ed. 14, eds. Hall, Edward T. and Mildred Reed Hall (1989), Understanding Cultural Differences, Yarmouth, MA: International Press. Cross-cultural consumer analysis is defined as the effort to determine to what extent the consumers of two or … In 1970, for example, the African American subculture was studied twice (as indicated by the letter "A"). Researchers investigating topics such as food purchasing behavior, black/white reaction to integrated advertisements, and African-American shopping behavior, for example, noted similarities and differences between the two ethnic groups, but neglected to take the next step in explaining the behavior they cited. for cross-cultural consumer research. The purpose of this literature review is to review systematically cross-cultural consumer research over a twenty-year period. To be certain that these are representative sources for the majority of cross-cultural consumer research, a manual and computerized search of the Social Science Citation Index from 1970-1990 was undertaken. Gilly, Mary C. (1988), "Sex Roles in Advertising: A Comparison of Television Advertisements in Australia, Mexico, and the United States," Journal of Marketing, 52 (April), 75-85. The first three papers address new motivational and cognitive patterns associated with cultural self-construals. Ger, Guliz and Russell W. Belk (1990), "Measuring and Comparing Materialism Cross-Culturally," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Other terms used in cross-cultural research such as socio-culture, assimilation, acculturation, and socialization need to be explicitly defined by the researcher to avoid the terminology confusion that now exists. R. Bagozzi and A. Tybout, Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 191-196. As reflected in demographic and sociological changes within the U.S., the Hispanic subculture was frequently topic for research as shown in Figure 2. Peter Kenning, Heinrich-Heine-University, Shih-Chieh Chuang, National Chung Cheng University While materialism is an internalized value, it outwardly results in possessions obtained to enhance that materialistic value. Arnould, Eric J. Hawkins, Del I., Don Roupe and Kenneth A. Coney (1981), "The Influence of Geographic Subcultures in the United States," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol 8, ed. In using the aforementioned selection criteria, a total of 118 articles are included in this review. The large number of definitions and the fact that the term is used frequently in common conversation (with no apparent communication confusion) does not excuse scientific researchers from providing readers with a theoretical and/or operational definition of the construct under investigation. FIGURE 3 CROSS-CULTURAL STUDIES OF EUROPE AND MIDDLE EAST As opposed to using language as a subcultural identifier, Hirschman (1981) proposes using an emic measure of ethnicity which permits the individual to ascribe religious and cultural identity to him/herself. In recent years, a growing number of consumer researchers have embarked on cross-cultural research in order to understand, explain, and predict the behavior of participants of our global consumer culture (e.g., Aaker 2000; Alden et al. 12, eds. 14, eds. An … }���3���ḣW���N=�ǻ�R��=��=���zGϯ�߇\$��^d���~�l�,��J��[�3����dC��D�,�R�R���{�Ry)&��}�ɋ������>��=+MU���a��٪hr2��(��F��EQ}����s�+�X�E!��ߦ�Kq3}R�a�P����͔���Um�OD�ψ��2��ψ� Hunt, Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 151-159. Reflecting the social influences of the 1960s, most subcultural studies published between 1970-1975 dealt with the African-American subcultureCfrequently referred to as "negroes" (Bush, Gwinner, and Solomon 1974; Cohen 1970; Gensch, and Staelin 1972; Gould, Sigband, and Zoerner 1970; Pruden and Longman 1972; Sexton 1971a, 1971b, 1972). Cunningham, William H., Russell M. Moore, and Isabella C. M. Cunningham (1974), "Urban Markets in Industrializing Countries: The Sao Paulo Experience," Journal of Marketing, 38 (April), 2-12. Cohen, Dorothy (1970), "Advertising and the Black Community," Journal of Marketing, 34 (October), 3-11. Hills, Gerald E., Donald H. Granbois, and James M. Patterson (1973), "Black Consumer Perceptions of Food Store Attributes," Journal of Marketing, 37 (April), 47-57. Hester, Susan B. and Mary Yeun (1987), "The Influence of Country of Origin on Consumer Attitude and Buying Behavior in the United States and Canada," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. There have been numerous literature reviews of consumer behavior topics which have relevance to cross-cultural studies (cf., Folkes 1988; Helegson, Kluge, Mager and Taylor 1984; McAlister and Pessemier 1982; Sheppard, Hartwick and Warshaw 1988; Sirgy 1982). Wallendorf, Melanie and Michael D. Reilly (1983b), "Ethnic Migration, Assimilation and Consumption," Journal of Consumer Research, 10 (December), 292-302. The team was formed in July 1998 to explore some of the issues arising from the globalization of the consumer society. R. Bagozzi and A. Tybout, Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 197-202. H.K. 16, ed. R. Bagozzi and A. Tybout, Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 702-704. While measures of values may be culturally bound, and hence, somewhat limited in their predictive abilities, nonetheless, researchers have continued to study values in different cultural contexts. Both findings reiterate the rising interest and importance of cross-cultural consumer behavior research. Schlesinger, Arthur M. Jr. (1991) The Disuniting of America, Nashville, TN: White Direct Books. in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Language and Culture. Cross-cultural Consumer Research Trends: Beyond U.S. Subcultures. The publication trend corresponds with the increased number of anthropological citations as noted by Leong (1989) in his examinations of the Journal of Consumer Research from 1974-1988. in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol 15, ed. Reilly, Michael and Melanie Wallendorf (1987), "A Comparison of Group Differences in Food Consumption Using Household Refuse," Journal of Consumer Research, 14 (September), 289-294. 10, ed. endobj ��+�i]�R� ԙ �q�2�b:�2hR€��C�Rm���ߖ�r�=S�t�����_^�E�۰���z����ŭ�6�X\eG�E�?��S3 (1976), "Cultural Values Do Correlate With Consumer Behavior," Journal of Marketing Research, 13 (May), 121-127. Ellis, Seth, James McCullough, Melanie Wallendorf, and Chin Tion Tan (1985), "Cultural Values and Behavior: Chineseness within Geographic Boundaries," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol.12, eds. We further recommend a "thing-centered" approach, in which the field of cultural phenomena is distilled by label- Hirschman, Elizabeth C. (1981), "American Jewish Ethnicity: Its Relationship to Some Selected Aspects of Consumer Behavior," Journal of Marketing, 45 (Summer), 102-110. Corpus ID: 168492616. Although the methodological issues specific to this research have long been acknowledged in the literature, recent studies confirm that the standards demanded by earlier studies have not been met. Richard Lutz, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 579-583. stream However, the field remains ripe for additional research on explanations of cultural phenomena and impacts upon consumer behavior. In addition, the real challenge for consumer researchers is to look further for similarities among people of the world, as opposed to differences. We will write a custom Essay on Hofstede’s Cultural Classification Framework and International Business specifically for you Kim, Chankon, Michael Laroche, and Annamma Joy (1990), "An Empirical Study of the Effects of Ethnicity on Consumption Patterns in a Bi-Cultural Environment," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Ward, Scott, Thomas S. Robertson, Donna M. Klees, and Hubert Gatignon (1986), "Children's Purchase Requests and Parental Yielding: A Cross-National Study," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. PUBLICATION TRENDS (NUMBER OF ARTICLES PER YEAR). Both findings reiterate the rising interest and importance of cross-cultural consumer behavior research. FIGURE 7 OPERATIONALIZATION OF CULTURE: ARTIFACTS Beliefs and Values as Indicants of Culture. Evidence suggests that the diffusion of Western values and goods, currently occurring in the Pacific Rim, is a result of language similarity and other variables which communicate materialistic values through advertising and other communication mechanisms (Takada and Jain 1991; Tse, Belk, and Zhou 1989). Cross-cultural marketing is the strategic process of marketing among consumers whose culture is different from that of the marketer's own culture. Review and future directions of cross-cultural consumer services research Jingyun Zhanga,⁎, Sharon E. Beattyb,1, Gianfranco Walshc,2 a Department of Marketing, College of Business Administration, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403, USA b Culverhouse College of Commerce and Business Administration, University of Alabama, P. O. The research focuses on consumer practices and the negotiation of consumer roles. If the U.S. continues the trend toward "ethnic upsurges" as noted by Schlesinger (1991) in his book, The Disuniting of America, continued research with additional subcultures represented is warranted. Wilkes, Robert E. and Humberto Valencia, (1985), "A Note on Generic Purchaser Generalizations and Subcultural Variations," Journal of Marketing, 49 (Summer), 114-120. (1989), "Current Theory and Research on Cross-Cultural Factors in Consumer Behavior," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Once researchers began holding income constant, racial differences seemed to disappear as well as publication opportunities. This attitude might be positive, negative, and neutral. Fairchild, Henry P. (1970), Dictionary of Sociology, Totowa, NJ: Littlefield & Adams. Hence, language serves various functions in a cultural context. As might be surmised, the topics of consumer acculturation, adoption, decision processes and diffusion are frequently examined. © 2020 Association for Consumer Research, The Journal of the Association for Consumer Research (JACR). Regardless of the dominant religion, Ger and Belk (1990) found the protestant work ethic and the subsequent increased value of material possessions to be surprisingly prevalent in Third World countries (Lee 1989; Wallendorf and Arnould 1987). Differences between European and Asian Studies. Elizabeth C. Hirschman and Morris B. Holbrook, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 59-64. 13, ed. In 1970, for example, the African American subculture was studied twice (as indicated by the letter "A"). Tan, Chin Tiong, Jim McCullough, and Jeannie Teoh (1987), "An Individual Analysis Approach to Cross Cultural Research," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Silk (1981), "Measure Unreliability: A Hidden Threat to Cross-National Marketing Research?" Author: Hasan Kalyoncu largely learned. Google Scholar Cross-cultural consumer research is increasingly important and essential for the current globalized marketplace. Sherry, John F. Jr. (1989), "Observations on Marketing and Consumption: An Anthropological Note," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. To this end, we propose that culture be conceptually defined as "a dynamic set of socially acquired behavior patterns and meanings common to the members of a particular society or human group, including the key elements of language, artifacts, beliefs, and values." The degree of importance a culture places on material goods still is open to debate. Articles dealing with a subculture, ethnic group, or group of people with minority status were also included in the literature review. Elizabeth C. Hirschman and Morris B. Holbrook, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 118-122. van Raaij, W. Fred (1978), "Cross-Cultural Research Methodology as a Case of Construct Validity," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 17, eds. Hence, a phenomenological approachCwhere description exists at the level of the respondentCor a hermeneutical approachCin which cultural artifacts are examined as an embodiment of cultural valuesCwould both be appropriate (Dilthey 1972; Thompson, Locander, and Pollio 1989). 17, eds. Goods carry and communicate visible evidence of cultural meaning (Lee 1989; McCracken 1986; Mick 1986), and in some cultures offer evidence of social success (Belk 1984). In such cases, the articles were classified by where the sample was taken. H.K. R. Bagozzi and A. Tybout, Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 197-202. People all over the world engage in these activities. In addition, the Asian or Oriental subculture deserves more attention. Mary Jaone Schlinger, Chicago, IL: Association for Consumer Research, 141-155. 4, July), 393-402. Cross-cultural and cross-national consumer research helps marketers to understand how the process of marketing to consumers, and the facilitation of marketing exchanges, must be re-examined when entering new national contexts. Jane Sojka and Patriya S. Tansuhaj (1995) ,"Cross-Cultural Consumer Research: a Twenty-Year Review", in NA - Advances in Consumer Research Volume 22, eds. Finn, Albert (1987), "The Sensitivity of Canadian Consumer Product Market Segments to Changes in Macroeconomic Conditions," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 16, ed. 14, eds. Belk, Russell W. and Wendy J. Bryce (1986), "Materialism and Individual Determinism in U.S. and Japanese Print and Television Advertising," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Cross-cultural and cross-national consumer research: psychology, behavior and beyond. Folkes, Valerie S. (1988), "Recent Attribution Research in Consumer Behavior: A Review and New Directions," Journal of Consumer Research, 14 (March), 548-565. FIGURE 2 NUMBER OF U.S. SUBCULTURES STUDIED In reviewing the literature, we attempted to distinguish studies of cross-national nature from those examining more specific cultural elements in the consumer behavior context. Munson, J. Michael and Shelby H. McIntyre (1979), "Developing Practical Procedures for the Measurement of Personal Values in Cross-Cultural Marketing," Journal of Marketing Research, 16 (February), 48-52. Tigert, D.J., C.W. <> 10, ed. J.C. Olson, Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research 617-621. Issues of particular concern include: definition of cultural concepts, re-visiting early cross-cultural research, critical assessment of cross-cultural methods, focus on commonalities among cultures, and increased emphasis on theoretical underpinnings of cross-cultural consumer behavior. Andreasen, Alan R. and Jean M. Manning, (1980), "Conducting Cross-National Consumer Policy Research," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Hence, the future holds promise for building additional sources of cross-cultural knowledge rooted in the foundations already established. An examination of twenty years' worth of diverse research in this discipline allows for identification of shifts and changes in a longitudinal manner. W.L. Graham, John L., Dong Ki Kim, Chi-Yuan Lin, and Michael Robinson (1988), "Buyer-Seller Negotiations around the Pacific Rim: Differences in Fundamental Exchange Processes," Journal of Consumer Research, 15 (June), 48-54. Green, Robert T. and Philip D. White (1976), "Methodological Considerations in Cross-National Research," Journal of International Business Studies, 7 (Fall/Winter), 81-88. R. Bagozzi and A. Tybout, Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 702-704. E) cross-cultural localization . <>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 612 792] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> McCracken, Grant (1989), "Who is the Celebrity Endorser? 16, ed. eds. Nagashima, Akira (1977), "A Comparative `Made in' Product Image Survey Among Japanese Businessmen," Journal of Marketing, 41 (July), 95-100. Under each country heading, the name of the first author and date of publication are noted in a "box." 12, eds. 16, ed. Although language may prove to be a poor segmentation variable, language preference is still the predominant determinant of acculturation in cross-cultural psychology literature and research suggests it may be instrumental in anticipating and encouraging diffusion of innovations among different cultures (Takada and Jain 1991). 14, eds. McAlister, Leigh and Edgar Pessemier (1982), "Variety Seeking Behavior: An Interdisciplinary Review," Journal of Consumer Research, 9 (December), 311-322. Rudmin, Floyd W. (1990), "German and Canadian Data on Motivations for Ownership: Was Pythagoras Right?" The level of investigation of cross-cultural research has become more sophisticated over the years with researchers comparing and contrasting two or more cultures simultaneously. The descriptive research was necessary for the beginning rudimentary exploration; yet theoretical explanations of the phenomenon described must be included in the analysis. Bush, Ronald F., Robert F. Gwinner, and Paul J. Solomon (1974), "White Consumer Sales Response to Black Models," Journal of Marketing, 38 (April), 25-29. Marvin Goldberg, Gerald Gorn and Richard W. Pollay, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 182-185. Marvin Goldberg, Gerald Gorn and Richard W. Pollay, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 826-832. Figure 2 illustrates the diversity of American subcultures examined by consumer behavior researchers. Hirschman, Elizabeth C. (1985), "Primitive Aspects of Consumption in Modern American Society," Journal of Consumer Research, 12 (September), 142-154. Kent Monroe, Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 564-567. Although several studies tried to build up integrative perspectives on cross-cultural consumer researches (Douglas and Craig, 1997), no integrated model is yet found in literature. TY - JOUR. 17, eds. Swagler, Roger M. (1977), "Information Patterns in Indigenous African Markets: A Lesson in Consumer Performance," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 11, ed. O'Connor, P.J., Gary L. Sullivan, and Dana A. Pogorzelski (1985), "Cross Cultural Family Purchasing Decisions: A Literature Review," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. FIGURE 1 PUBLICATION TRENDS (NUMBER OF ARTICLES PER YEAR) Expanding to Other U.S. Subcultures From 1975 to 1985, cross-cultural research continued to expand both in terms of the number of articles published and the diversity of subcultures investigated. 13, ed. Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 629-632. Since the research compared France with the U.S., these articles are listed in Figure 3 under France with an "N" signifying a cross-national study. research by providing empi rical evidence of how consumer-behavior styles vary. In addition, the real challenge for consumer researchers is to look further for similarities among people of the world, as opposed to differences. Although language may prove to be a poor segmentation variable, language preference is still the predominant determinant of acculturation in cross-cultural psychology literature and research suggests it may be instrumental in anticipating and encouraging diffusion of innovations among different cultures (Takada and Jain 1991). Subcultural research has become increasingly sophisticated with comparison of more diverse groups. M. Wallendorf and P. Anderson, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 562. Glaser, Barney G. and Anselm Strauss (1967), The Discovery of Grounded Theory, Chicago, IL: Aldine. 11, ed. Socio-linguists postulate that language is important in the formation of thought patterns and behavioral responses (Douglas 1979). While measures of values may be culturally bound, and hence, somewhat limited in their predictive abilities, nonetheless, researchers have continued to study values in different cultural contexts. Nagashima, Akira (1970), "A Comparison of Japanese and U.S. Attitudes Toward Foreign Products," Journal of Marketing, 34 (January), 68-74. Regardless of the dominant religion, Ger and Belk (1990) found the protestant work ethic and the subsequent increased value of material possessions to be surprisingly prevalent in Third World countries (Lee 1989; Wallendorf and Arnould 1987). The majority of research on the Asian countries was culturally oriented, specific cultural elements were examined more closely. 14, eds. Suggestions for future research are then provided. During the next decades, as marketers enter new international markets, an understanding of how culture influences consumer behavior will be crucial for both managers and consumer researchers. Briefly stated, cross-cultural research is a field ripe for post-positivist inquiry. J.C. Olson, Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 684-687. in Advances in Consumer Behavior, Vol. Material possessions and tangible goods, including food, represented another avenue pursued by consumer researchers to make operational definitions of the abstract culture concept more concrete. Lee, Wei-Na (1989), "The Mass-Mediated Consumption Realities of Three Cultural Groups," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. The world economy is becoming increasingly cross‐cultural. Cunningham, William H., Russell M. Moore, and Isabella C. M. Cunningham (1974), "Urban Markets in Industrializing Countries: The Sao Paulo Experience," Journal of Marketing, 38 (April), 2-12. M. Wallendorf and P. Anderson, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 347-351.