Soil Biol Biochem 75:223–232, Luo Z, Sun OJ, Xu H (2010) A comparison of species composition and stand structure between planted and natural mangrove forests in Shenzhen Bay, South China. 10.1023/A:1011121109886, Millennium ecosystem assessment. For abundance and biomass this will use Eq. However, the review only used a subset of the available literature on the topic, of which the majority was published in peer-review journals or FAO reports. Washington, DC: U.S: Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987. Although there is no “one-size-fits-all” solution to restore or rehabilitate mangrove wetlands, published studies (particularly peer reviewed) provide useful insights into designing R/R projects with clearly defined and prioritized management objectives based on a diagnostic of the source of damage/deterioration. REST Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. the eventual outcome of mangrove rehabilitation or restoration projects, fundamentally depend on sediment supply. Estuaries 2003, 26: 1461–1471. Front Ecol Environ 2011, 9: 552–560. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 5:39–64, Lunstrum A, Chen L (2014) Soil carbon stocks and accumulation in young mangrove forests. In: Chicharo L, Zalewski M (eds) Ecohydrology and restoration. Springer International Publishing, pp 47–64, Jerath M, Bhat M, Rivera-Monroy VH, Castaneda-Moya E, Simard M, Twilley RR (2016) The role of economic, policy, and ecological factors in estimating the value of carbon stocks in Everglades mangrove forests, South Florida, USA. Vo QT, Kuenzer C, Vo QM, Moder F, Oppelt N: Review of valuation methods for mangrove ecosystem services. In: Field C (ed) Restoration of mangrove ecosystems. 132 p, Alexandris N, Chatenoux B, Lopez Torres L, Peduzzi P (2013) Monitoring mangrove restoration from space. Island Press, Washington, pp 417–419, Lewis RR, Marshall MJ (1998) Principles of successful restoration of shrimp aquaculture ponds back to mangrove forests (abstract). To recognize different types of mangrove forest trees as a precursor to conducting forest rehabilitation 3. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 277–297, Stubbs BJ, Saenger P (2002) The application of forestry principles to the design, execution and evaluation of mangrove restoration projects. Ecol Econ 107:22–38, Tobey J, Clay J, Vergne P (1998) The economic, environmental and social impacts of shrimp farming in Latin America. Bois et Foréts des Tropiques 273:5–21, Tamin NM, Zakaria R, Hashim R, Yin Y (2001) Establishment of, Tang Y, Fang Z, Chen K, Zhang Z, Zhong Y, An D, Yang X, Liao B (2012) Ecological influence of exotic plants of. ZSL's team of mangrove researchers have published the following manuals: 1.,, 38 (August 2013) under Stories of Success. Environ Pollut 181:233–241, Rovai AS, Soriano-Sierra EJ, Pagliosa PR, Cintrón G, Schaeffer-Novelli Y, Menghini RP, Coelho-Jr C, Antunes Horta P, Lewis RR, Simonassi JC, Andrade Alves JA, Boscatto F, Dutra SJ (2012) Secondary succession impairment in restored mangroves. This has put severe pressure on mangrove forests, leading to steady deforestation. Google Scholar. Bioscience 2001, 51: 807. 10.1007/s12237-007-9008-5. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Valiela I, Bowen JL, York JK (2001) Mangrove forests: one of the world's threatened major tropical environments at least 35% of the area of mangrove forests has been lost in the past two decades, losses that exceed those for tropical rain forests and coral reefs, two other well-known threatened environments. Global Nature Fund, Radolfzell, 60 pp, Tsuruda K (2013) Silviculture manual for mangrove restoration in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Many restored mangrove forests resemble forest plantations rather than truly integrated ecosystems, but mangrove plantations can be a first step toward mangrove rehabilitation. GD-0010, PERSGA, Jeddah, Saenger P, Sankaré Y, Perry T (1996) Review of selection criteria and ecological guidelines for mangrove restoration studies. Borenstein M, Hedges LV, Higgins JPT, Rothstein HR: Introduction to meta-analysis. 10.1016/j.tree.2011.08.006, Field C: Rehabilitation of mangrove ecosystems: an overview. In Proceedings of the ECOTONE V Conference., Community Participation in Conservation, Sustainable Use and Rehabilitation of Mangrove in South East Asia. DBI-0620409 and DEB-1237517), NASA-JPL project “Vulnerability Assessment of Mangrove Forest Regions of the Americas” (LSU Subcontract no. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 66:157–167, Bohórquez-Rueda C, Prada-Triana MC (1988) Transplante de plántulas de Rhizophora mangle (Rhizophoraceae) en el Parque Nacional Corales del Rosario, Colombia. Studies will be classified as 'high’, 'medium’ or 'low’ quality based these criteria to broadly define susceptibility to bias. Restor Ecol 8:219–229, Ellison AM (2008) Managing mangroves with benthic biodiversity in mind: moving beyond roving banditry. Primavera JH: Socio-economic impacts of shrimp culture. Many plantations are both species-rich and managed under several land-use arrangements, with communities sitting … This training aims to increase participant capacity to engage in mangrove rehabilitation. Society for Ecological Restoration International Science Policy Working Group: Society for ecological restoration international science & policy working group. Environ Conserv 2011, 38: 485–496. UNEP/Earthprint. Duke NC, Meynecke JO, Dittmann S, Ellison AM, Anger K, Berger U, Cannicci S, Diele K, Ewel KC, Field CD, Koedam N, Lee SY, Marchand C, Nordhaus I, Dahdouh-Guebas F: A world without mangroves? Cien casos de éxito. Landis JR, Koch GG: The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. In: FJ Webb (ed) Proceedings of the 10th annual conference on wetland restoration and creation. represent the mean abundance or biomass at the restoration or rehabilitation site and the mean abundance or biomass at the reference site respectively. Datta D, Chattopadhyay RN, Guha P: Community based mangrove management: a review on status and sustainability. Mangrove forest restoration and rehabilitation programs are increasingly undertaken to re-establish ecosystem services in the context of community-based biodiversity conservation. Mace GM, Norris K, Fitter AH: Biodiversity and ecosystem services: a multilayered relationship. This can be broken into components as shown in Table 2. The study estimates planting, capital and recurrent costs at approximately US$41 per hectare of mangrove … equals the effect size, W Summary findings of DFID-funded research ‘participatory mechanisms for sustainable development of coastal ecosystems’ (Project R6977), School of African and Asian studies, University of Sussex, Falmer, 48 p, Giri C, Ochieng E, Tieszen LL, Zhu Z, Singh A, Loveland T, Masek J, Duke N (2011) Status and distribution of mangrove forests of the world using earth observation satellite data. Ecol Indic 2012, 23: 431–446. With so much recent attention being given to mangrove loss [6], payment for ecosystem services schemes often with a focus on carbon [53], and community based conservation [46] it is important to systematically and quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of mangrove restoration and rehabilitation schemes using all available evidence from a range of sources. In Coastal Wetlands: An integrated ecosystem approach. Wetl Ecol Manag 18:233–242, McKee K, Faulkner P (2000) Restoration of biogeochemical function in mangrove forests. An Internet search will be carried out using the following search engines: Google Scholar - Wetl Ecol Manag 22:587–604, Darkwa S, Smardon R (2010) Ecosystem restoration: evaluating local knowledge and management systems of fishermen in Fosu Lagoon, Ghana. In: Santiago-Fandiño V, Tanaka H, Spiske M (eds) Tsunamis and earthquakes in coastal environments, Coastal Research Library. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109:14369–14374, Snedaker SC, Biber PD (1996) Restoration of mangroves in the United States of America. 10.1890/10-1510.1, Article  Mangroves provide many ecosystem services, which can broadly be grouped following the four categories proposed by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment [23] including provisioning (timber, fisheries), regulating (coastal protection, carbon storage), supporting (sediment stabilisation, primary production, nutrient cycling) and cultural (religious values, tourism and recreation) services (Table 1) [2, 24]. 10.1038/ngeo1123, Carlton JM: Land-building and stabilization by mangroves. Mangroves on the move: Habitat restoration efforts underway New funding from the Governor’s Office is aiding a partnership between the Department of Disaster Management and the Jost Van Dykes Preservation Society to rehabilitate mangrove forests, starting with a nursery on the eastern end of Jost Van Dyke. 26). i But actual planting of mangroves is rarely needed as mangroves annually produce hundreds or thousands Wetlands Ecol Manage 2006, 14: 527–538. 10.1038/nature11148, Elmqvist T, Folke C, Nystrom M, Peterson G, Bengtsson J, Walker B, Norberg J: Response diversity, ecosystem change, and resilience. Mar Pollut Bull 37:404–419, Underwood AJ (1997) Experiments in ecology: their logical design and interpretation using analysis of variance. Taylor and Francis, New York, pp 343–352, Lugo AE, Snedaker SC (1974) The ecology of mangroves. Environ Conserv 1974, 1: 285–294. 10.1016/S0964-5691(98)00074-X, Islam MS, Haque M: The mangrove-based coastal and nearshore fisheries of Bangladesh: ecology, exploitation and management. A summary of coastal wetland carbon, including mangroves, is seen in the accompanying image. Oficina regional de ciencia y tecnología de la UNESCO para América Latina y el Caribe-ROSTLAC, Montevideo, p 109, Cintrón-Molero G (1992) Restoring mangrove systems. Sabah Forestry Department, International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems and Tokio Marine & Nichido Fire Insurance Co., Ltd. 56 pp. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109:14287–14288, Cannicci S, Burrows D, Fratini S, Lee SY, Smith TJ III, Offenberg J, Dahdouh-Guebas F (2008) Faunal impact on vegetation structure and ecosystem function in mangrove forests: a review. The difference between these two definitions highlights a potential conflict in objectives. PLoS One 9(8):e105069, Hamilton S (2013) Assessing the role of commercial aquaculture in displacing mangrove forest. Despite the proliferation of projects aiming to restore and rehabilitate mangroves there is currently very little evaluation of their effectiveness. Philippine mangroves chart (2.17 MB) 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2004.10.003. At a global level there is increased awareness of the role of mangroves in carbon storage [25], both through timber but more importantly as 'blue carbon’- carbon resources stored underground in associated stable mangrove sediment, which can be greater than that within the standing mangrove forest [26]. Technical paper no. I document and compare the changes in the plant and macrofaunal communities among degraded, restored and natural mangrove systems. 10.1017/S0376892900004926, Alongi DM, Pfitzner J, Trott LA, Tirendi F, Dixon P, Klumpp DW: Rapid sediment accumulation and microbial mineralization in forests of the mangrove Kandelia candel in the Jiulongjiang Estuary, China. J Environ Manage 2012, 107: 84–95. Forest Resources Assessment Working Paper 63. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Uniquely using this approach will minimise bias in the studies included and allow quantitative synthesis of results, giving indications of magnitude of differences between restored or rehabilitated mangroves and reference sites. Biotemas 27:37–48, Beymer-Farris BA, Bassett TJ (2012) The REDD menace: resurgent protectionism in Tanzania’s mangrove forests. Wetl Ecol Manag 4:93–109. There is currently mixed evidence for the effectiveness of mangrove restoration and rehabilitation projects, in part due to a lack of objective goal-setting and a lack of will to fund full ecological restoration favouring other goals [41, 47]. Hydrobiologia 720:1–18, Samson MS, Rollon RN (2008) Growth performance of planted red mangroves in the Philippines: revisiting forest management strategies. Nat Geosci 2011, 4: 293–297. Tri et al. Correspondence to VHRM was partially funded by The Florida Coastal Everglades Long-Term Ecological Research program (grant nos. Restoration is returning a habitat to the most natural condition, whereas rehabilitation often focuses on optimising ecosystem services alongside biodiversity. mangrove restoration policies and the financial capacity of the government agency tasked with policy im-plementation. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 2008, 31: 371–381. Searches will be limited to English. The dominant mechanism with which restoration has been approached is through mangrove planting, 62. Aquat Bot 2008, 89: 251–259. Restor Ecol 8:247–259, Mcleod E, Chmura GL, Bouillon S, Salm R, Björk M, Duarte CM, Lovelock CE, Schlesinger WH, Silliman BR (2011) A blueprint for blue carbon: toward an improved understanding of the role of vegetated coastal habitats in sequestering CO, Menezes GV, Schaeffer-Novelli Y, Poffo IRF, Eysink GGJ (2005) Recuperação de manguezais: um estudo de caso na Baixada Santista de São Paulo, Brasil.
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