Plutarch wrote that it was not known whether Brutus betrayed his army or whether his army betrayed him and switched allegiance. When the Perusine War broke out in 41 BC, Octavian tasked Lepidus with the defence of Rome against Lucius Antonius, Mark Antony’s brother. [11] Lepidus gathered the remnants of the weakened Marian faction (see Sulla's first and Sulla's second civil war), and those who had escaped Sulla's proscriptions.[12]. For a while he managed to distance himself from the frequent quarrels between his colleagues Antony and Octavian. He enriched himself during Sulla's proscriptions. There is no mention of any participation in the conflict by Decimus Junius Brutus and Mamercus Aemilius Lepidus Livianus, the consuls of that year (77BC), who also had military command. . Lepidus is the eldest of the three men, and he is, perhaps, the least ambitious. 40.). This usually happened when a town could no longer endure a siege. He expresses trust in Lepidus and is less disillusioned than Antony. He then retired to Sardinia, "where he died of disease and sorrow of mind. Lepidus agrees, on the condition that Mark Antony's nephew is also killed for being involved in the assassination. Ronald Syme called him “a flimsy character…perfidious and despised”. Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (born c. 89 or 88 BC, died late 13 or early 12 BC) was a Roman patrician who was triumvir with Octavian (the future Augustus) and Mark Antony, and the last Pontifex Maximus of the Roman Republic. Octavius has interacted with Lepidus as if he will have an equal share of power with them In what way is Antony's behavior toward Lepidus similar to his manipulation of the crowd at Caesar's funeral? A friend of Caesar. Catulus, who had recruited an army at Rome, now took on Lepidus directly defeating him in a battle north of Rome. I do consent,— OCTAVIUS. . There is no mention of Pompey. [14] With regard to the land, before retiring from political life in 79 BC, Sulla confiscated land from the locals in Campania and Etruria to grant allotments to his veterans who then established a colony (a Roman settlement outside Roman territory). Lepidus was among Julius Caesar's greatest supporters. He started his cursus honorum as a praetor in 49 BC, was placed in charge of Rome while Caesar defeated Pompey in Greece, [3] and was rewarded with the consulship in 46 BC after the defeat of the Pompeians in the East. Lepidus exits. ANTONY. OPTIONS: Show cue speeches • Show full speeches # Act, Scene, Line (Click to see in context) Speech text: 1. During his governorship of Africa he promoted the distribution of land to veterans, possibly in order to build up a network of clients. He wrote that Catulus was more suited to "political than military leadership" and, thus, Pompey (Lepidus old benefactor) had to make a decision about who he would support. He served to balance the power of Antony and young Octavius Caesar, because he was a threat to neither Octavius nor Antony. At the beginning Lepidus was confirmed in possession of both the provinces of Hispania, along with Narbonese Gaul, but also agreed to hand over seven of his legions to Octavian and Antony to continue the struggle against Brutus and Cassius, who controlled the eastern part of Roman territory. Lepidus was rewarded with the position of Proconsul in the Spanish province of Hispania Citerior. with an international group of editorial assistants. focuses on a chronological and categorized collection of various environmental and social events that accompanied the Fall of the Roman Empire. What is the relationship among Antony, Octavius, and Lepidus in Julius Caesar? His wife Junia was, however, implicated. Exsuperantius wrote that a battle was fought on the coast of Etruria. Antony, Octavius and Lepidus have banded together in a counter-conspiracy to destroy the men who killed Caesar. Florus thought that this would have been fair if he had done this without destabilising Rome. Lepidus continued to assure the Senate of his loyalty, but engaged in negotiations with Antony. Octavian was the only surviving commander of the forces that had defeated Antony at Mutina (modern Modena). He started his cursus honorum as a praetor in 49 BC, was placed in charge of Rome while Caesar defeated Pompey in Spain,[3] and was rewarded with the consulship in 46 BC after the defeat of the Pompeians in the East. But, Lepidus, go you to Caesar's house; Fetch the will hither, and we shall determine How to cut off some charge in legacies. Léonie Hayne says that he acted “skillfully and consistently in support of Antony and (indirectly) of the Caesarian faction”. According to Lepidus’s biographer Richard D. Weigel, Lepidus’ willingness to give up his legions inevitably consigned him to a subsidiary role in the triumvirate. Caesar and the Senate were sufficiently impressed by Lepdius’s judicial mixture of negotiation and surgical military action that they granted him a Triumph. PLAY. ANTONY He shall not live; look, with a spot I damn him. Flashcards. Therefore, it might be that at the beginning of this conflict Rome had no consuls and that they were elected late on during the conflict or afterwards, Pliny the Elder wrote that when Lepidus died, his body was ejected from the funeral pyre by the force of the flames and he was cremated naked on other faggots. [29] The interrex was an official who was appointed when difficult disputes made holding elections exceedingly difficult. Granius Licinianus wrote that Lepidus passed a corn law without opposition (it provided a corn allowance of five modii for the people) and made many other promises: to recall the exiles, to rescind the acts of Sulla, and to restore to its owners the land which had been used for military colonies. Octavius tells Lepidus that his brother must be killed. Lepidus soon became one of Julius Caesar’s greatest supporters. Antony suggests that, as a way of saving money, they examine Caesar’s will to see if they can redirect some of his funds. emsere. Lepidus had mobilised support in a large part of Italy and sent Marcus Junius Brutus to hold Gallia Cisalpina with an army. When Antony attempted to take control of Cisalpine Gaul (northern Italy) by force and displace Decimus Brutus, the Senate led by Cicero called on Lepidus to support Brutus – one of Caesar’s killers. Cassius and his supporters were allowed to leave and order was restored. Please view our In Appian's account there is no mention of Brutus, Pompey and Gaul. Hayne, Léonie, “Lepidus’ Role after the Ides of March”, Acta Classica, 14, 1971, pp. Perpenna, who had joined the rebellion, went to Spain (with the remnant of the rebel forces) to avoid punishment and joined Quintus Sertorius in the Sertorian War. Prick him down, Antony. Antony thinks Lepidus is weak, so it's a shame that he'll be sharing power with Antony and Octavius in the triumvirate. STUDY. As soon as Lepidus has gone, Antony begins to talk trash about him. "[13] Antony, Octavius, and Lepidus form a political alliance and take of the rule of Rome as a triumvirate after Caesar's death. It got them to swear that they would not let their differences escalate to the point of war. However, this was to lead to an ill-judged political move that gave Octavian the excuse he needed to remove Lepidus from power. LEPIDUS Upon condition Publius shall not live, Who is your sister's son, Mark Antony. [4], Lepidus was the first governor of Sicily under Sulla’s regime. He also had men who had taken part in Lepidus' rebellion and had fled to Sertorius in Hispania recalled. Gaius Julius Caesar (/ ˈ s iː z ər / SEE-zər, Latin: [ˈɡaːi.ʊs ˈjuːli.ʊs ˈkae̯.sar]; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman general and statesman who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.. Caesar appears to have had greater confidence in Lepidus than in Mark Antony to keep order in Rome, after Antony’s inflammatory actions led to disturbances in 47 BC. [25], Asconius Pedianus and an entry in Livy's Periochae also mentioned a conflict in Sardinia. But, Lepidus, go you to Caesar’s house. Lucius soon withdrew from Rome and Octavian retook the city. Antony taunts him with an elaborately nonsensical description of a Nile crocodile. Lepidus was forced to flee to Octavian’s camp. here? However, he refused to join him because the outlook was less promising than he had thought and because he did not think that Lepidus was a good leader. By becoming pontifex maximus and triumvir he had gained a level of recognition that would preserve his name and save a very small niche for him in the history of western civilization. Cicero condemned Lepidus for “wickedness and sheer folly” after he allowed his forces to join with Mark Antony’s after Antony’s initial defeat at the Battle of Mutina. The Tragedy of Julius Caesar (First Folio title: The Tragedie of Ivlivs Cæsar) is a history play and tragedy by William Shakespeare first performed in 1599. He was the father of the triumvir Marcus Aemilius Lepidus and of one of the consuls for 50 BC Lucius Aemilius Lepidus Paullus. Messala is a minor character in William Shakespeare's 'Julius Caesar', but he is a loyal friend to Brutus. Act Four, Scene One. During the Social War Lepidus fought in northern Italy under Pompeius Strabo, who was consul in 89 BC. [31], For other people named Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, see, Brennan, T.C., The Praetorship in the Roman Republic, p. 507, Pliny the Elder, Natural History, 35.12; 36.49,109, Julius Exsuperantius, On the civil Wars of Marius, Lepidus and Sertorius, 35, St. Jerome Hieronymus, Chronological Tables, 1940, Julius Exsuperantius, On the civil Wars of Marius, Lepidus and Sertorius, 38-42, Asconius, Five detailed descriptions of speeches of Cicero, 19,, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. [3] In 82 BC, during Sulla's second civil war, he fought for Sulla. He wrote that Lepidus decided to bring his army to Rome because he knew why he had been recalled, namely to be stripped of his military command. After this Lepidus was given six of Antony’s legions to govern Africa. Lepidus was defeated in a battle at the Milvian bridge[23] and then declared an enemy of the senate. Their works, too, have survived only in fragments. [20], Appian wrote that there was a conflict between the two consuls and their two factions (the Sullans and the Marians), and that the senate was afraid of both factions. Appian wrote that after a long resistance, he was let in the town by treachery. The triumvirate’s legal life span was for five years. In Antony and Cleopatra, Lepidus will be treated more disdainfully by Antony and eliminated from the Triumvirate, probably by being murdered offstage. Lepidus became one of the triumvirs partly because he had a large number of soldiers under his command and also because Antony needed him. Antony has a paper with names on it and he says, "These many, then, shall die; their names are pricked" (4.1.1). Caesar also made Lepidus magister equitum (“Master of the Horse”), effectively his deputy. As soon as Lepidus learned of Caesar’s murder, he acted decisively to maintain order by moving troops to the Campus Martius. He was praetor in 49, governor Test. Latest answer posted February 12, 2009 at 1:36:35 AM However, the Periochae was a collection of very brief summaries of the contents of Livy's works and its editor might have missed references to Pompey out. This database, Lepidus and Junia Secunda had at least one child, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus the Younger. [7] We do not know when this happened. Sending Lepidus for Caesar’s will, Antony expresses contempt for Lepidus and plans with Octavius to raise an army to fight the troops of Brutus and Cassius. IV,1,1864. Why do they want Caesar's will? Licinianus wrote that after the inhabitants of Faesulae attacked the veterans in the colony and reclaimed their land (see section above), "[t]he consuls were assigned an army and set off for Etruria, as the senate instructed." [15], In 77 BC, when Lepidus had left for his proconsular command (he was allocated the provinces of Cisalpine and Transalpine Gaul to the north of Italy), his political opponents moved against him. LEPIDUS. [10] Pompey intervened and ensured a state funeral for the late dictator. In Florus' account, Lepidus also wanted to repeal Sulla's acts. the Ultimate Decree) which called on the interrex Appius Claudius and the proconsul Quintus Lutatius Catulus to take necessary measures to preserve public safety. [1] This brought him into conflict with the optimates whom Sulla had put back in power. Julius Caesar, in full Gaius Julius Caesar, (born July 12/13, 100? An excellent soldier if not the most intelligent of men, he becomes the third ruler of Rome along with Octavius and Antony after Caesar’s death. This was probably in 81 BC. He agrees. They formed the Second Triumvirate, legalized with the name of Triumvirs for Confirming the Republic with Consular Power (Triumviri Rei Publicae Constituendae Consulari Potestate) by the Lex Titia of 43 BC. Read every line of Shakespeare’s original text alongside a modern English translation. Fetch the will hither, and we shall determine How to cut off some charge in legacies. Neither writers mentioned any battles near Rome. He asserted that Sicily should be absorbed into his sphere of influence. Holland, Tom, Rubicon: The Triumph and Tragedy of the Roman Republic, Abacus, 2004, ISBN 0-349-11563-X, 316. After the defeat of Antony in 30 BC, Lepidus’ son Lepidus the Younger was involved in a conspiracy to assassinate Octavian, but the plot was discovered by Gaius Maecenas. 59–65. [8], Lepidus was elected consul for the year 78 BC. He secured Caesar’s appointment as dictator, a position Caesar used to get himself elected as Consul, resigning the dictatorship after eleven days. He became the third member of the Second Triumvirate, which was recognized in November 43 by the People's Assembly (Lex Titia). Credits She was related to Lucius Appuleius Saturninus. Lucius, with superior forces, easily took the city. With the triumvirs in possession of overwhelming numerical superiority, Decimus Brutus’ remaining forces melted away, leaving the triumvirs in complete control of the western provinces. Appian was also referring to this when he wrote that Lepidus, wanted to restore the land which Sulla had taken from the Italians to gain their favour. Octavian sent him into exile in Circeii. Lepidus was allotted the military command of the province of Gallia Transalpina. After negotiation, he suggested an alternative: Octavian could have Sicily and Africa, if he agreed to give Lepidus back his old territories in Spain and Gaul, which should legally have been his according to the Lex Titia. They pers… Lepidus refused to support Cassius, who had created opposition to Caesar’s regime by his corruption and avarice. After Lepidus’s fall from power, he is referred to as the “poor third” and “fool Lepidius”. Lepidus also agreed to the proscriptions that led to the death of Cicero and other die-hard opponents of Caesar’s faction. But, Lepidus, go you to Caesar's house; Fetch the will hither, and we shall determine How to cut off some charge in legacies. When he refused to return they declared him an enemy of the state and passed a Consultum Ultimum (a.k.a. However, Cassius Dio hints that Lepidus helped Paullus to escape. Lepidus was to become Consul and was confirmed as Pontifex Maximus. 36 – 40). He was probably aedile while Sulla was in Greece fighting the First Mithridatic War. Granius Licinianus, Grani Liciniani Quae Supersunt (Classic Reprint)( inLatin), Forgotten Books, 2018: Plutarch, Parallel Lives: Agesilaus and Pompey, Pelopidas and Marcellus (Loeb Classical Library), Loeb, 1989: Sallust, Catiline's War, The Jugurthine War, Histories: WITH The Jugurthine War, Penguin Classics, 2007; This page was last edited on 23 September 2020, at 15:56. The senate voted him a public thanksgiving festival. Lepidus realised that in the following year his oath not to make war on the Sullans would no longer be valid because it was considered that it was binding only during the term of office (which lasted only one year). He was the son of a prominent politician (d. c. 77 bc) of the same name. He started his cursus honorum as triumvir monetalis, overseeing the minting of coins, from c. 62–58 BC. Antony declares Lepidus “a barren-spirited fellow, one that feeds / On objects, arts, and imitations”; he reproaches Octavius, saying, “Do not talk of him / But as a property,” that is, as a mere instrument for the furtherance of their own goals (IV.i. Use this worksheet and quiz to learn about Lepidus in Julius Caesar. However, Catulus and Pompey had already occupied the Milvian bridge and the Janiculum Hill. [9] When Sulla died in the same year, Lepidus tried to prevent the body from being buried in state on the Campus Martius. During these operations, Lepidus then fell ill and died. After Antony’s defeat at the Battle of Mutina, the Senate sent word that Lepidus’ troops were no longer needed. Mark Antony and the other Caesar supporters take up the cause of avenging Caesar's assassination. "[27], The entry in Livy's Periochae also seems to indicate that it was Catulus who ended the conflict. Laura Knight-Jadczyk The next day Pompey sent Geminius to kill Brutus. LEPIDUS. However, in agreeing to yield seven of his legions and allow Octavian and Antony the glory of defeating Brutus and Cassius, he had consigned himself to a minor role in the future. Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, Roman statesman, one of the triumvirs who ruled Rome after 43. Alain Gowing has also argued that his actions in Sicily, though “futile”, were no more than an “attempt to regain a position from which he had been unfairly thrust.”. ... Lepidus is a Senator of Rome. In his usual slanderous way, he also privately suggested that Lepidus’ wife Junia was unfaithful to him. ANTONY It is likely that the factional conflict that split Rome made the election of new consuls difficult. Meanwhile, Pompey had penned up Marcus Junius Brutus, one of Lepidus's commanders, in Mutina. After the death of Lucius Cornelius Sulla, he attempted to undermine the Sullan constitution and revive the populares faction. His maternal great-uncle Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC, and Octavius was named in Caesar's will as his adopted son and heir. Antony considers him "a slight unmeritable man, Meet to be sent on errands." The brief alliance in power of Caesar and Lepidus came to a sudden end when Caesar was assassinated on March 15 44 BC (the Ides of March). He had family ties to this province. Licinianus wrote: "The inhabitants of Faesulae broke into the strongholds of the veterans. See also our While in Spain Lepidus was called upon to act to quell a rebellion against Quintus Cassius Longinus, governor of neighbouring Hispania Ulterior. Lepidus had to plead with his former enemy Lucius Saenius Balbinus to grant her bail. Key Concepts: Terms in this set (15) What are Antony, Octavius, and Lepidus doing at the opening of the scene? Julius Caesar Characters & Descriptions . LEPIDUS. In Antony and Cleopatra he is portrayed as extremely gullible, asking Antony silly questions about Egypt while very drunk. Octavian, now known as “Augustus”, is said to have belittled him by always asking for his vote last. There was a battle with Catulus near Campus Martius. Lepidus joined the College of Pontiffs as a child. LEPIDUS What, shall I find you here? However, in his opinion, he did not because he recalled the survivors of Sulla's enemies which, he felt, he did for no other purpose than for a war. Antony, however, marched towards Lepidus’s province with his remaining forces. PLAY. [3] Pliny the Elder thought that he had the most beautiful house in Rome, with marble thresholds and shields with the battle scenes of Troy. His task was to find solutions which made it possible to call an election. After Lepidus' death, Caesar used a law proposed by a certain Plotius, which he had supported, to recall his brother-in-law Lucius Cornelius Cinna, the son of Lucius Cornelius Cinna (who had been one of the leaders of the Marians when they seized power in Rome between 87 BC and 82 BC, and who was also Caesar’s father-in-law). Learn. Created by. Pompey then marched against Lepidus' rear catching him near Cosa, but although he defeated him Lepidus was still able to embark part of his army and retreat to Sardinia.[21]. On 22 September 36 BC Lepidus was stripped of all his offices except that of Pontifex Maximus. He was recalled from his proconsular command. He fell ill and “died of despondency, which was due, as we are told, not to the loss of his cause, but to his coming accidentally upon a writing from which he discovered that his wife was an adulteress.”[20] The Brutus in question was Marcus Junius Brutus the Elder, the father of Marcus Junius Brutus the Younger, one of the leaders of the plot to assassinate Julius Caesar. He was prevented from entering Rome, so he prepared his army for battle. He also wanted to return the estates which had been confiscated from the men Sulla had executed and sold to private individuals (the proscriptions). Then he sent another letter “denouncing the man after he had been put to death.” Meanwhile Lepidus went to Rome to demand a second consulship, “terrifying the citizens with a vast throng of followers.” However, at that moment Pompey’s letter which announced that he had brought the war to an end arrived. Why does Antony send Lepidus to Caesar's house to get the will? When he refused to return they declared him an enemy of the state and passed a Consultum Ultimum (a.k.a. In 77 BC, when Lepidus had left for his proconsular command (he was allocated the provinces of Cisalpine and Transalpine Gaul to the north of Italy), his political opponents moved against him. After the pacification of the east and the defeat of the assassins’ faction in the Battle of Philippi, during which he remained in Rome, Antony and Octavian took over most of Lepidus’ territories, but granted him rights in the provinces of Numidia and Africa. According to Plutarch, this was with the support of Pompey, who canvassed for him against the wishes of Sulla, who did not trust Lepidus. He also wrote: "Lepidus ...[missing text]... into the mountains ...[missing text]... led back his army." He captured Norba, in Latium, which had sided with Sulla's enemies, the Marians. [30], Julius Caesar, who was a Marian and had fled Rome during Sulla's persecution, returned to Rome because of the rebellion Lepidus was planning. Lepidus thereafter administered both Hispania and Narbonese Gaul. [2] In 77 BC, when he was recalled from his proconsulship of Gaul, he returned to Rome at the head of an army and an armed conflict erupted. In an entry in the chronological tables of St. Jerome Hieronymus, it is stated that Lepidus was declared a public enemy.[24]. Though he was an able military commander and proved a useful partisan of Caesar, Lepidus has always been portrayed as the weakest member of the triumvirate. Lepidus was the son of Marcus Aemilius Lepidus; his mother may have been a daughter of Lucius Appuleius Saturninus. It is unclear whether Lepidus’ troops forced him to join with Antony, whether that was always Lepidus’s plan, or whether he arranged matters to gauge the situation and make the best deal. Speeches (Lines) for Lepidus in "Julius Caesar" Total: 3. print/save view. Lepidus had in fact already reached the peak of his power. [6], Pliny the Elder noted that Lepidus divorced his wife Appuleia. Test. Lepidus negotiated an agreement with him, while claiming to the Senate that he had no choice. In 37 BC the treaty of Tarentum formally renewed the Triumvirate for another five years. In Julius Caesar, Antony is already thinking about getting rid of Lepidus… They are marking off names of men who are condemned to death. He typically appears as a marginalised figure in depictions of the events of the era, most notably in Shakespeare’s plays. Antony and Lepidus met with Octavian on an island in a river, possibly near Mutina but more likely near Bologna, their armies lined along opposite banks. ANTONY. Antony plans to control and use Lepidus for his own purposes, as he did the crowd Terms in this set (54) How does Antony react to the suggestion that his nephew Publius should be killed? Lepidus had a large force because many people had joined him as they hated Sulla's regime. [5] Cicero wrote that he had not committed fraud in regard to the grain supply. He, Mark Antony, and Marcus Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins of Caesar. Lepidus' forces were defeated in a battle near the Milvian Bridge and as a result his rebellion failed. His brother was Lucius Aemilius Lepidus Paullus. 3. "[14] The mountains Licinianus referred to must have been in Etruria. Lepidus appears to have been genuinely shocked when Antony provocatively offered Caesar a crown at the Lupercalia festival, an act that helped to precipitate the conspiracy to kill Caesar. With that settled, Lepidus is sent to collect Caesar's will, to see if they can divert some of his money their way. shall . This remarkable volte-face had been designed by Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, like Antony a former general in Caesar's army. Legal Notice He proposed using his army to punish Caesar’s killers, but was dissuaded by Antony and Aulus Hirtius. Gravity. [13] Presumably the men who bought the confiscated property would resist such a measure. —Upon condition Publius shall not live, Who is your sister’s son, Mark Antony. (in short "QFG") under the supervision of senior executive editor In effect, it sidelined the consuls and the senate and signalled the death of the Republic. When in February 44 BC Caesar was elected dictator for life by the senate, he made Lepidus Master of the Horse for the second time. [22] Brutus eventually surrendered. He shall not live; look, with a spot I damn him. Or here, or at the Capitol. In 36 BC, during the Sicilian revolt, Lepidus raised a large army of 14 legions to help subdue Sextus Pompey. kjones12345. Lucius Ampelius made a brief reference about this conflict in which he stated that Catulus ended the fight. 3 Educator answers. It sounds like Catulus went to Etruria to pursue Lepidus. Lepidus was sent to negotiate with him. Stable URL: He wrote that "Lepidus gathered together the dispossessed, whose land had been taken over by Sulla after his victory to make new colonies for his soldiers, and also the children of the proscribed. But, Lepidus, go you to Caesar's house; Fetch the will hither, and we shall determine : How to cut off some charge in legacies.
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