- Cognitive psychology is the branch of psychology that studies mental processes including how people think, perceive, remember and learn. (a) Basically all theories agree that in the earlier stages thought is essentially sensory-motor in character and is bound by immediate sensory experiences. The most obvious example of representation is the use of words or language and it is at this stage that the child begins to use words to stand for objects. Conception is the process of forming concepts. It involves analysis of facts observed or recalled into their component elements. A remarkable ability is acquired in this fourth and final stage, which occurs between 11 and 15 years of age. Concepts play an important part in thinking.
5. Posted Dec 08, 2016 This type of ‘picturing’ things to oneself is called iconic representations thinking. Practical thinking is a necessary condition for resolving pedagogical situations, including conflicts that often arise during the learning process. More complex concepts are formed by the mind through the similar process of abstraction. “A large material body attracts smaller bodies.” This law is a combination of the concepts ‘large material body’, ‘small material body’ and ‘attraction’. The experimenter poured water from the container B into A. Here the mind consciously puts together the percept of the sky with the percept of the blue, and combines them into the complex idea of the blue sky and believes in its reality. Reasoning consists in passing from given judgements to a new judgement implied in them. This ability is said to develop in the next stage. Another interesting aspect of pre-operational thinking identified by Piaget is the concept of conservation. Lower concepts are brought under higher concepts, and these again under still higher concepts. The memory image of your dilapidated house sets you thinking of its repairs in the rainy season. This mode of conversion is usually non-verbal and is based on action or movement. But thought is not identical with language. Thus it rises from the particular facts perceived to imageless concepts. (b) At the second level a distinction emerges between sensory experience and thought, due to the development of the capacity to form images and later, thought gets separated from sensory experience. Piaget first became interested in human adaptation when he watched his own children playing. They are due to generalisation. A background of general education and special education for solving specific problems are the prerequisites of creative thinking. The laws, rules, and principles are the tools of reasoning by which we can effectively deal with the environment. The containers B and C had identical quantity of water. It makes use of symbols, percept, images, and concepts. However, Bruner differed from Piaget in focusing on the representations the child uses in thinking rather than on the operations or manipulations which take place in the process. Here thinking becomes symbolic and verbalized but still remains highly egocentric. Invariably, the children said ‘yes’, even though they realised he had not added or taken away any beads. A concept is not representable; it cannot be imagined. First, they help us to organize and unify our ideas of things by classifying them. “A baby drops a rattle through the bars of its crib. Thinking goes ahead and speech follows it .Sometime we read pages without understanding a single syllable. Thinking makes use of percept, images, and concepts. It may be seen that most of the theorists agree on these general features. Sullivan postulates three basic modes. The Freudian theory of development with its concept of different stages like oral, anal, phallic and genital, drew several conclusions for the understanding of thinking. But in psychology, even those approaches to creativity assessment that are “process” based are essentially dependent upon what educators would think of as products. II. Sensory images, verbal images, or abstract or schematic images generally accompany the process thinking. (c) Discussion and argument stimulate thought. This is the point of similarity between them. Define Cognition. Gradually, he understood that there is a pattern. Thinking involves foresight also. This geometrical law is a synthesis of the concepts of ‘angle’, ‘triangle’ and ‘right angle’. Similarly, a baby may grasp a rattle, shake it, put it into the mouth, drop it and so on. Gestures are enactive representations. Thus, they were able to approximate Archimedes principle (objects float if their density is less than that of replaced water). Thinking is manipulating information, as when we form concepts, engage in problem solving, reason and make decisions. They are concrete and specific. They relieve the mind from the burden of remembering the bewildering variety of objects of experience by substituting a moderate and manageable number of concepts for them. We can think of the class ‘man’, but we cannot have an image of it. In particular, knowledge and wisdom have close ties with innate human sensitivity and the brain’s thinking capacity. To demonstrate the development of abstract thinking Piaget conducted a simple experiment. If the shop owner gives you two chocolates in exchange for this coin (one rupee coin), how many chocolates would you get in exchange for these four coins (showing four coins of twenty five paise)”. Creativity Creating new and unique thoughts and products of thought. Sometimes we deliver a set speech without the corresponding thinking. This was demonstrated in the following famous experiment. The purpose of the five thinking processes is to help one answer three questions essential to achieving focused improvement: It is gradual. It recalls relevant facts observed at different times and places, groups them into new patterns, and discovers something new truth in them. She examines the watch with great interest, feels it, turns it once, says “apff, etc… If before her eyes, I hide the watch behind my hand, behind the quilt, etc. A concept can be easily manipulated with the aid of a name, and communicated to another person. ‘The sky is blue’. Consider a simple arithmetic problem. We have an image of a particular man, or an animal. Thought, according to Freud, is an integral part of the total function of living and the nature of the thought process reflects the overall developmental stage of life itself. at the end of the sensory-motor period, Jacqueline became quite capable of finding the watch if it was hidden behind the quilt or hand. They are essential tools in thinking. In This is hindsight. They rationalized their wrong beliefs. When our thoughts are recorded in language, they may be used by ourselves in future and add to the knowledge of others. So we reason to find out a reasonable motive of our action. But we have a concept of ‘man’, or ‘animal’. They are not fully capable of making a distinction between themselves and the outside world. It is only at a later stage that thinking becomes objective and a distinction emerges between the inner self and the outer world. (i) Thinking is a Series of Symbolic Process: (iii) Purpose of Thinking: Discovery or Invention: (iv) Hindsight and Foresight in Thinking: (iii) Is Thinking Identical with Inner-Speech. During the latency period, the thinking process expands and according to Anna Freud, there is an enrichment of fantasy and abstract thinking. Yet, another approach to the development of thinking comes from the views of H.S. The theories are: 1. In his experiment, four marbles were arranged in the following pattern in front of the child: The child steadfastly maintained that the rearrangement contained more marbles. Purposive thinking is oriented towards a goal. The older children seemed to know what would float. It is the process in charge of activating the body and putting it in the ideal state. An image is particular and concrete, while a concept is general and abstract. identifying the root of your failure is your first priority. The lamb is born with many strong practical instincts while the infant with few. A sensory image, visual or auditory, is often a tool of thinking. Thus, we see that at the final stage, the individual is able to arrive at generalisations, and real thought processes begin to develop. It makes use of memory, imagination, and reasoning of problem-solving. How are concepts formed? They also are the combinations of concepts. 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