This is why reporting data analysis is not enough; you need to: in order to make clear your contribution to knowledge in the field. 1. You're tired and the last thing you want to do is keep writing. How I do it now is that I have a lot of different things happening at once. In presenting your own interpretation of the results, consider the strengths and weaknesses of alternative interpretations from the literature. Presenting new results; such data belong in the results section. 2. the research methods and theoretical framework that have been outlined earlier in the thesis. Speculation is fine as long as you acknowledge that you're speculating and you don't stray too far from your data, say experts. There are generally accepted guidelines for presenting the results of statistical analyses of data about populations or groups of people, plants or animals. These comments seem to provide evidence that Angela is growing professionally for two reasons. Eager to reach the finishing line, they miss the opportunity to fully explore their findings … It is the last part of your paper, in which you summarize your findings in light of the current literature. Organize the discussion from the general to the specific, linking your findings to the literature, then to … This page deals with the central part of the thesis, where you present the data that forms the basis of your investigation, shaped by the way you have thought about it. Whatever the case, there should be two sections if they are in the same chapter; one for the findings […] Information for Indigenous Australians. Discussion Chapter: Main Goals and Writing Approaches. Related reading: The secret to writing the results and discussion section of a manuscript; 5 Differences between the results and discussion sections The first step is to clarify for yourself what you know now, as a result of your research. Try to make your sections and subsections reflect the themes that have emerged from your analysis of the data, and to make sure your reader knows how these themes evolved. Monash University is a registered higher education provider under the TEQSA Act 2011. reducing fat intake lowers the risk of heart disease. Remember, adds Scholl, you want readers to remember you and your work. In this section, your findings should be the focus, rather than those of other researchers. Yet, arguably the most difficult part of writing your dissertation awaits: your discussion, the place where you sew up the various threads of your research into a cohesive narrative. Along with noting your work's limitations, it's helpful to also suggest follow-up studies. The discussion should indicate whether \the results met the objectives and include the reasons for it. It is usually expressed in words, and this results in a large quantity of written material, through which you must guide your reader. Now read over what you've written. The Discussion Section. And while the discussion should put your research into context and tell a story, say experts, it should not overstate your conclusions. The results and discussion sections are one of the challenging sections to write. In the discussion of your findings you have an opportunity to develop the story you found in the data, making connections between the results of your analysis and existing theory and research. 40-42. When to Write Dissertation Findings Chapter. Fellow students, your adviser and your dissertation committee members can help provide that outside perspective, adds Yale clinical psychology professor Susan Nolen-Hoeksema, PhD, who teaches a course on writing in psychology. Last updated: Nov 2020. "The point of a discussion, in my view, is to transcend 'just the facts,' and engage in productive speculation," he says. The Results section of a scientific research paper represents the core findings of a study derived from the methods applied to gather and analyze information Is there anything there you want to develop further? It is important that everything in this last section is based off of the results of the data analysis. "You can't and shouldn't rely on others to intuitively appreciate the beauty and importance of your work," he says. Swales, J. M., & Feak, C. B. The discussion of findings is often considered one of the most important part of thesis project/research work in the sense that, this is where the researcher of a project topic presents the underlying findings of his research. It probably won’t produce text you can use in your thesis, but it might help to clarify your ideas and show you ways to structure your argument. Individual data extracts can be connected back into this structure through a process of 'tell-show-tell'.Click on the highlighted text below to read the comments. Maintained by: Research & Learning Online Webmaster Team. Then, launch into "bigger picture" issues. But don't dwell on the future at the expense of the present,says Scholl. Have you learnt anything? Help us improve your experience by  providing feedback  on this page. For more detailed guidance, we have an excellent handbook titled Write a convincing discussion section – The key to journal acceptance. These include stating your interpretations, declaring your opinions, explaining the effects of your findings, and making suggestions and predictions for future research. Authorised by: Chief Marketing Officer, Strategic Marketing and Communications. Indeed, every discussion should include a "humility" section that addresses the study's limitations, write Cone and Foster. The discussion should show how your findings fit with existing knowledge, what new insights they contribute, and what consequences they have for theory or practice. Example from a Doctor of Education thesis: In analysing the interview data, two themes emerged which will be discussed in this section. Restating the results without interpretation or links to other research. In this Chapter, all the experimental results from the phenomenological experiments outlined in Section 5.2 are presented and examined in detail. DO: Emphasize the positive. The blog post explains how to write discussion section of your paper. You will definitely find it helpful. For example, a thesis in oral history and one in marketing may both use interview data that has been collected and analysed in similar ways, but the way the results of this analysis are presented will be very different because the questions they are trying to answer are different. In your discussion you must draw together your research question and your own research results. Reducing fat intake could/might lower the risk of heart disease. How to Write a Better Thesis (2nd ed.). The data needs to be connected back through the layers of detail to the overarching research question it relates to. DO: Provide context and explain why people should care. Qualitative data is difficult to present neatly in tables and figures. The reporting of qualitative data is much less bound by convention than that of quantitative data. In a thesis including publication, it will be the central section of an article. 3. Reporting conventions differ according to whether the data involved is quantitative or qualitative. Reducing fat intake tends to lower the risk of heart disease. The majority of studies indicate that for this age group, reducing fat intake contributes to lowering the risk of heart disease. Sage Publications. If so, what do they add to it? Are your findings very different from other studies? The way you present the analysis and interpretation of your data sits within a wider thesis framework, which can itself be thought of as a story (adapted from Silverman, 2005, p. 242-43): The challenge for every thesis writer is to hold the detail of the data in focus without losing sight of the big picture of the research. Headings and subheadings, as well as directions to the reader, are forms of signposting you can use to make these chapters easy to navigate. Demographic data that describe the sample are usually presented first. That means going back to the literature and grappling with what your findings mean, including how they fit in with previous work. Step 19: Write Discussion and Conclusion The second to last step in conducting a research study is to interpret the findings in the Discussion section, draw conclusions, and make recommendations. You don't have to show what you write to anyone. So it is worth finding out what conclusions your brain has reached  while  you  were collecting and analysing your data. (2004). As well as giving your own interpretations, make sure to relate your results back to the scholarly work that you surveyed in the literature review. It must be in whole sentences and you must not stop. Ask yourself these questions: 1. Structure is therefore very important. Evans, Gruba and Zobel, in their book “How to Write a Better Thesis”, describe the discussion chapter as the place where you: “… critically examine your findings in the light of the previous state of the subject as outlined in the background, and make judgments as to what has been learnt in your work” Let’s accept this: Writing a paper is daunting, and sometimes the most difficult and thought-provoking part is writing the ‘discussion’ section. Claims should therefore be specific and precise, and the level of certainty must match the level of evidence. Evans and Gruba suggest you try these techniques: 1. For this age group , reducing fat intake lowers the risk of heart disease. It is important that the results be presented in an informative way. Literature reviews play an important role in the discussion section of a manuscript. Consistently use ‘this’ to refer to your own research and refer to previous research by name, place or time. Use the first person to describe your findings. "Too often I am left excited not by what was in the dissertation, but by what was not in the dissertation. Think of your discussion and conclusion section as an inverted pyramid: start from the general aspects of your research and then focus on the specifics. As well as giving your own interpretations, make sure to relate your results back to the scholarly work that you surveyed in the literature review. But avoid beginning the discussion with a long list of study limitations, says Nolen-Hoeksema. Composing Qualitative Research. In fact, choosing what to include can be overwhelming, warns sixth-year Yale University social psychology graduate student Aaron Sackett. When he defended his master's thesis, his committee told him his conclusions went too far out on a limb. University assignments are a big challenge, but we can guide you. The discussion should show how your findings fit with existing knowledge, what new insights they contribute, and what consequences they have for theory or practice. Failing to differentiate between strong and weak results as you make conclusions about them. In a traditional doctoral thesis, this will consist of a number of chapters where you present the data that forms the basis of your investigation, shaped by the way you have thought about it. "No reader wants to wade through ten pages of suppositional reasoning," says Roddy Roediger, PhD, chair of psychology at Washington University. The new data may be found in Appendix C. The principal goal of the vernacular adaptor of a Latin saint's life was to edify and instruct his audience. Angela suggested that in her second year of teaching she had changed in that she was programming in a "more child oriented" way. ", Roediger agrees: "Conclude the general discussion with a strong paragraph stating the main point or points again, in somewhat different terms-if possible-than used before.". DO: Look toward the future. If your results differ from others' findings, you should try to explain why, says Nolen-Hoeksema. In the discussion of your findings you have an opportunity to develop the story you found in the data, making connections between the results of your analysis and existing theory and research. DO: Provide context and explain why people should care. After that, the organisation will vary according to the kind of research being reported. What, therefore, has become of your original research problem and the literature regarding it? Revisit the 'forest. 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