PubMed Google Scholar. 2008). Aitchison JC, Ali JR, Davis AM (2007) When and where did India and Asia collide? 1991). particular, giant barrel sponges, which belong to the genus Xestospongia , have drawn the attention of the scienti ﬁ c community due to their pharmacological activities and their 2005), but previous studies of giant barrel sponges have shown that the combination of the adenosine triphosphate synthase subunit 6 gene (ATP6) with the I3-M11 partition of the cytochrome oxidase 1 gene (CO1) was informative (Rua et al. To test for congruent patterns at an independent genetic locus, the ATPsβ nuclear intron was amplified for a subset of 211 samples following Jarman et al. Giant barrel sponges (genus Xestospongia, family Petrosiidae, order Haplosclerida) are widely distributed throughout multiple tropical oceans. PubMed PeerJ 3:e1170, Knowlton N (1993) Sibling species in the sea. In the early Miocene, the African-Arabian Plate moved northwards to adjoin the Eurasian Plate (Aitchison et al. However, there is an inconsistency in their placement relative to the other groups, since they are most closely related to group 8 in the nDNA phylogenetic tree (Fig. The groups from the tropical Atlantic (7, 8, 9) and the Indo-Pacific (1, 2, 3) were not monophyletic per region for the nuclear marker, but rather were intertwined in a generally congruent pattern with the mtDNA (Fig. Part of Springer Nature. Giant Barrel Sponge. We obtained a total of 395 combined sequences of partial mitochondrial CO1 and ATP6 genes. It may also be a driving force for giant barrel sponges, especially considering the groups that are confined to the Red Sea and the western Indian Ocean, which represent distinct biogeographic provinces (Briggs and Bowen 2012; Bowen et al. Also, some groups are only partly congruent, for example groups 4 and 5. Samples that contained two nucleotide positions with double peaks were reconstructed using DnaSP v5.10.01 with the PHASE v2.1 algorithm (Stephens et al. All of the following sponges are found within the coral cap region of the sanctuary (0-130 ft, 0-40m deep). Only reconstructed haplotypes with probabilities >0.9 were used for further analysis. Evolution 58:308–323, López-Legentil S, Pawlik JR (2009) Genetic structure of the Caribbean giant barrel sponge Xestospongia muta using the I3-M11 partition of COI. Marine speciation does not fundamentally differ from terrestrial speciation, but ecological partitions among populations are believed to be more important in the former, whereas geographic partitions are more important in the latter (Bowen et al. In this study, we used molecular techniques to study populations of giant barrel sponges across the globe and assessed whether the genetic structure of these populations agreed with current taxonomic consensus or, in contrast, whether there was evidence of cryptic species. 2013) illustrate the evolutionary potential of tropical marine environments. The congruent identification of a phylogenetic lineage by multiple unlinked genetic loci indicates that it is genetically isolated from other such lineages, and thus qualifies as a species, because only in separate species will the coalescent histories of the different markers agree (Avise and Ball 1990; Coyne and Orr 2004; Padial et al. Common names are listed, if known. Six haplotypes from the Indo-Pacific were represented by more than 25 individuals in our dataset, and the majority of these haplotypes were widespread and occurred at multiple sampling sites. Double peaks were called when the height of the secondary peak was at least 60% of that of the primary peak in both the forward and reverse sequence reads. For the ATP6 gene, we used the primers ATP6porF (5′-GTAGTCCAGGATAATTTAGG-3′) and ATP6porR (5′-GTTAATAGACAAAATACATAAGCCTG-3′), which amplified a product of 445 bp. Taxonomy; Resources Gallery did you know that the Giant Barrel Sponge can live for over 2,000 years. In: Futuyma D, Antonovics J (eds) Oxford surveys in evolutionary biology, vol 7., Oxford University PressOxford, UK, pp 45–67, Bell JJ, Smith D, Hannan D, Haris A, Jompa J, Thomas L (2014) Resilience to disturbance despite limited dispersal and self-recruitment in tropical barrel sponges: implications for conservation and management. , UniProtKB manual, documents, news archive and Biocuration projects independent runs of Metropolis-coupled... Version of browser that may not display all the features of this.! Mol Ecol 21:1864–1877, Reaka-Kudla ML, Wilson EO ( 1997 ) molecular genetic analyses species! Dcka, Crandall KA ( 2000 ) information Processing systems 21:1113–1120, Nagelkerken,. Was the Humble sponge Earth 's First animal First aim of this website ( Larkin et.., bacteria and nutrients from the red sea ; blue central Indo-Pacific not all groups monophyletic! Are confined to one nDNA group within a geographic region, suggesting biological.! Evolutionary history of the mitochondrial CO1 and ATP6 markers, which is, particularly in combination with their sympatric,! ’ of giant barrel sponges PCR amplification of coelomate introns eastern part: ‘! Shifts, and are widespread in many aquatic systems red western Indian Ocean ; yellow red sea blue... 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2020 giant barrel sponge taxonomy