When he was 24, Smith published the Book of Mormon. He lived great, and he died great in the eyes of God and his people” . [166] Once the Smiths were in custody, the charges were increased to treason, preventing them from posting bail. [104] Smith explicitly approved of the expulsion of these men, who were known collectively as the "dissenters". In the narrative, Enoch speaks with God, receives a prophetic calling, and eventually builds a city of Zion so righteous that it was taken to heaven. In a church-wide conference on August 8, most of the Latter Day Saints elected Young, who led them to the Salt Lake Valley as The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). He supported capital punishment but opposed hanging, preferring execution by firing squad or beheading. Some historians have speculated—based on journal entries and family stories—that Smith may have fathered children with his plural wives. [144] Though the evidence was circumstantial, Boggs ordered Smith's extradition. Born in Sharon, Vermont, his parents, Joseph and Lucy Smith, operated a farm. [102] In the weeks and months after Smith and Rigdon arrived at Far West, thousands of Latter Day Saints followed them from Kirtland. No, Joseph Smith, Jr. did not have a middle name. [129] Bennett used his connections in the Illinois legislature to obtain an unusually liberal charter for the new city, which Smith renamed "Nauvoo" (Hebrew נָאווּ, meaning "to be beautiful"). [165] On June 23, Smith and his brother Hyrum rode to Carthage to stand trial for inciting a riot. Nor did people of higher social standing intimidate him; he appeared to think of himself as the equal of anyone, as demonstrated when he ran for president of the United States in 1844. [99] After a warrant was issued for Smith's arrest on a charge of banking fraud, Smith and Rigdon fled Kirtland for Missouri in January 1838.[100]. [278] This doctrine of endowment evolved through the 1830s, until in 1842, the Nauvoo endowment included an elaborate ceremony containing elements similar to Freemasonry and the Jewish tradition of Kabbalah. The temples he built (in Smith’s lifetime, two were erected and two more were planned) were modeled on the temples of ancient Israel. Understanding that he was effectively on trial before his own people, many of whom considered him a fallen prophet, he wrote a personal defense and an apology for the activities of the Danites. [200] Emma said that the very first time she ever became aware of a polygamy revelation being attributed to Smith by Mormons was when she read about it in Orson Pratt's periodical The Seer in 1853. In November 1838 Smith was imprisoned on charges of robbery, arson, and treason, and he probably would have been executed had he not escaped and fled to Illinois. harvtxt error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFBrodie1971 (, harvtxt error: multiple targets (3×): CITEREFNewellAvery1994 (. [62] The Book of Mormon brought Smith regional notoriety and opposition from those who remembered the 1826 Chenango County trial. Returning later as a resurrected being, he told Joseph Smith about the ancient record, which contains the fulness of the gospel as delivered by the Savior to … That day is called the “Winter Solstice” otherwise known as the “shortest day” of the year. In retaliation, Bennett left Smith's following and wrote "lurid exposés of life in Nauvoo". Non-Mormon vigilantes raided and burned Mormon farms, while Danites and other Mormons pillaged non-Mormon towns. [105], Political and religious differences between old Missourians and newly arriving Mormon settlers provoked tensions between the two groups, much as they had years earlier in Jackson County. Joseph Smith Jr. was born on December 23, 1805. The book also provides an enlarged account of the Genesis creation narrative and expands the story of Enoch, the ancestor of Noah. [237] The Book of Abraham speaks of the founding of the Abrahamic nation, astronomy, cosmology, lineage and priesthood, and gives another account of the creation story. Carthage, Illinois, United States. [281] For example, this power would enable proxy baptisms for the dead and priesthood marriages that would be effective into the afterlife. [178], Mormons and non-Mormons have produced a large amount of scholarly work about Smith, and to a large extent the result has been two discordant pictures of very different people: a man of God on the one hand, and on the other, a fraud preying on the ignorance of his followers. Current statistics published by the LDS Church show 16.1 million members of that denomination. [121], Smith bore his imprisonment stoically. Governor Lilburn Boggs then ordered that the Mormons be "exterminated or driven from the state". Why did Joseph Smith die? Later, a group of Eight Witnesses — composed of male members of the Whitmer and Smith families — issued a statement that they had been shown the golden plates by Smith. [284] He taught that outside the Covenant, marriages were simply matters of contract, and that in the afterlife individuals married outside the Covenant or not married would be limited in their progression. The book closes when Mormon's son, Moroni, finishes engraving and buries the records written on the golden plates. [156], On June 7, the dissidents published the first (and only) issue of the Nauvoo Expositor, calling for reform within the church and appealing to the political views of the county's other faiths as well as those of former Mormons. [223] Later, however, he is said to have used a chocolate-colored stone he had found in 1822 that he had used previously for treasure hunting. [139] At first, the endowment was open only to men, who were initiated into a special group called the Anointed Quorum. [135] When embarrassing rumors of "spiritual wifery" got abroad, Smith forced Bennett's resignation as Nauvoo mayor. [109], In a speech given at the town's Fourth of July celebration, Rigdon declared that Mormons would no longer tolerate persecution by the Missourians and spoke of a "war of extermination" if Mormons were attacked. [315], the founder of the Latter Day Saint movement, This article is about the founder of the Latter Day Saint movement. Soon after, on April 6, 1830, Smith and his followers formally organized the Church of Christ, and small branches were established in Palmyra, Fayette, and Colesville, New York. [243] Revelations were immediately copied, and then circulated among church members. When dissenters published a reform newspaper in Nauvoo that Smith felt disturbed the peace, he ordered it suppressed. Rigdon said that "if the salt have lost its savor, wherewith shall it be salted? Lucy Smith attended Presbyterian meetings, but her husband refused to accompany her, and Joseph, Jr., remained at home with his father. Smith, however, never viewed the wording to be infallible. He died on February 11, 2012 at 59 years of age. [279] The endowment was extended to women in 1843, though Smith never clarified whether women could be ordained to priesthood offices. While believing in the Bible, like all Christians, Smith broke its monopoly on the word of God. [221] The Book of Mormon itself states only that its text will "come forth by the gift and power of God unto the interpretation thereof". He died in August 1957 at 38 years old. [188] Smith's sons Joseph III and David also had claims, but Joseph III was too young and David was yet unborn. In his adulthood, he was a polygamist, a practice which, coupled with his suppression of a press critical of his lifestyle, eventually led to his arrest and subsequent murder at the hands of an angry mob. [89] In March 1836, at the temple's dedication, many participants in the endowment reported seeing visions of angels, speaking in tongues, and prophesying. [226] After completing the translation, Smith gave the brown stone to Cowdery, but continued to receive revelations using another stone until about 1833 when he said he no longer needed it. Joseph Smith Jr. was born 23 December 1805 in Sharon, Vermont, to Joseph and Lucy Mack Smith. [116], The following day, the Latter Day Saints surrendered to 2,500 state troops and agreed to forfeit their property and leave the state. [195] Many members of these smaller groups, including most of Smith's family, eventually coalesced in 1860 under the leadership of Joseph Smith III and formed what was known for more than a century as the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (now the Community of Christ), which now has about 250,000 members. However, several fragments were rediscovered in the 1960s, were translated by Egyptologists, and were determined to be part of the Book of Breathing with no connection to Abraham. Did Joseph smith junior have a middle name? [34] Smith reported that during the next four years, he made annual visits to the hill, but, until the fourth and final visit, each time he returned without the plates. [181] More nuanced interpretations include viewing Smith as: a prophet who had normal human weaknesses; a "pious fraud" who believed he was called of God to preach repentance and felt justified inventing visions in order to convert people;[182] or a gifted "mythmaker" who was the product of his Yankee environment. Joseph Smith was born on December 31, 1969. [185] Smith had proposed several ways to choose his successor, but had never clarified his preference. Members of the church, known as Saints, gathered first at Independence, Missouri, on the western edge of American settlement. Later revelations dealt primarily with the priesthood, endowment, and exaltation. [170] He was shot multiple times before falling out the window, crying, "Oh Lord my God!" There are 3 I know 2 Robert F. Kennedy and Joseph F. Smith. [209] In fact Smith's first recorded revelation was a rebuke chastising Smith for having let Martin Harris lose 116 pages of Book of Mormon manuscript. [70] Rigdon soon visited New York and quickly became Smith's primary assistant. He was also being accused by Assistant President of the Church Oliver Cowdery[92] of engaging in a sexual relationship with a teenage servant in his home, Fanny Alger. [91] Smith was blamed for having promoted a church-sponsored bank that failed. [21][22] Smith's parents disagreed about religion, but the family was caught up in this excitement. [97] Smith encouraged the Latter Day Saints to buy the notes, and he invested heavily in them himself, but the bank failed within a month. It was the originality of his views, an outsider commented, that made his discourse fascinating. [277] Upon introducing the Melchizedek or "High" Priesthood in 1831, Smith taught that its recipients would be "endowed with power from on high", thus fulfilling a need for a greater holiness and an authority commensurate with the New Testament apostles. 1 On December 23, 1805, Lucy Mack Smith delivered a son named after his father, Joseph Smith. [216], Christian themes permeate the work; for instance, Nephite prophets in the Book of Mormon teach of Christ's coming, and talk of the star that will appear at his birth. [67] Shortly after the conference, Smith dispatched Cowdery, Peter Whitmer, and others on a mission to proselytize Native Americans. [193] Smaller groups followed Sidney Rigdon and James J. Strang, who had based his claim on an allegedly forged letter of appointment. [247] Another 1832 revelation "on Priesthood" was the first to explain priesthood doctrine. Attracting converts from Europe as well as the United States, Nauvoo grew to rival Chicago as the largest city in the state. [275], By the mid-1830s, Smith began teaching a hierarchy of three priesthoods—the Melchizedek, the Aaronic, and the Patriarchal. Some of these polyandrous marriages were done with the consent of the first husbands, and some plural marriages may have been considered "eternity-only" sealings (meaning that the marriage would not take effect until after death). In answer to his question about which was the right church, they told him that all the churches were wrong. Members of the church were later called "Latter Day Saints" or "Mormons", and Smith announced a revelation in 1838 which renamed the church as the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. [235] The book also elaborates and expands upon foreshadowing the coming of Christ, in effect Christianizing the Old Testament. Joseph Smith (1805-1844) ... Smith was born in 1805 in Sharon, Vermont, into a hard-pressed farm family that eventually included ten children. January 22–23 Kirtland: Joseph organizes the School of the Prophets (see Doctrine and Covenants 88:70–80, 117–141). [203], After Smith's death, Emma Smith quickly became alienated from Brigham Young and the church leadership. [66] In response, Smith dictated a revelation which clarified his office as a prophet and an apostle, and which declared that only he held the ability to give doctrine and scripture for the entire church. [288], Smith taught that the highest level of exaltation could be achieved through "plural marriage" (polygamy), which was the ultimate manifestation of this New and Everlasting Covenant. [145] (Rockwell was later tried and acquitted.) Sometimes the revelations gave practical instructions; others explained the nature of heaven or the responsibilities of the priesthood. On April 6, 1830, Smith organized a few dozen believers into a church. [80] Smith's trip was also hastened by a mob of Ohio residents who were incensed over the United Order and Smith's political power; the mob beat Smith and Rigdon unconscious, tarred and feathered them, and left them for dead. [50] Anthon denied Harris's account of the meeting, claiming instead that he had tried to convince Harris that he was the victim of a fraud. [130] The charter granted the city virtual autonomy, authorized a university, and granted Nauvoo habeas corpus power—which allowed Smith to fend off extradition to Missouri. [38] In 1826, Smith was brought before a Chenango County court for "glass-looking", or pretending to find lost treasure. Joseph Smith was born on December 28, 1926. [26] Smith said that, although he had become concerned about the welfare of his soul, he was confused by the claims of competing religious denominations. He died on September 16, 1962 at 7 years of age. "Lieutenant General" Smith and "Major General" Bennett became its commanders, thereby controlling by far the largest body of armed men in Illinois. "The keys of the kingdom," he wrote, "have not been taken away from us". [280], Smith taught that the High Priesthood's endowment of heavenly power included the sealing powers of Elijah, allowing High Priests to effect binding consequences in the afterlife. The purpose of the temple rituals was to give people the knowledge they needed to enter God’s presence and to become like God. [256] For instance, the doctrines of baptism for the dead and the nature of God were introduced in sermons, and one of Smith's most famed statements about there being "no such thing as immaterial matter" was recorded from a casual conversation with a Methodist preacher.
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