Minority government A government formed by a party which does not have an absolute majority in the House of Commons. A relaxing or easing of tensions between powers. In practice the name often given by governments to voters in normal elections, or to those who have been appointed to a certain level so as to vote their choice to a higher office. Originally that body of law which was common to all parts of England (not customary or local law) and developed over centuries from the English courts to be adopted and further developed in countries using that system. A bird dog is a retriever who runs into the bushes and flushes birds out into the open. A democratic vehicle for legislative or constitutional enactment which bypasses the legislature. Power can take many forms, from brute force to articulate persuasion. We need a few more definitions before we move on. A vote that the presiding officer of decision-making body, who normally does not vote so as to give an impression of impartiality, has the option to exercise when it would have an effect. Not a law but a government rule or regulation. That which teaches us to govern ourselves.”      Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Australian concept related to candidate manipulation in larger political parties. All those involved in MAKING laws. Like how only dogs can hear the dog whistle, only the target political audience can comprehend the real meaning of the innocuous words spoken by the politician. Term derived by author O. Henry for a short story involving the fictional Republic of Anchuria. Latin for “to the man”. A type of governance where those in power refrain from significant actions such as undertaking major legislative programs or senior judicial or public service appointments, but only maintain necessary normal administrative duties. So far so good! The leverage a small party in the legislature possesses, in being able to give, or hold back, voting support to a large, albeit still minority party, to allow it to have a majority on a vote. A tax levied on goods and services such as sales tax, GST, VAT or an excise tax. Aka black propaganda. Derived from a fable about a group of mice who decide the best way to be warned when the cat is near is for someone to place a bell around its neck, only to find there are no volunteers to perform that task. Foreign Office, the Minister of this department is called the ‘Foreign Secretary’. see also Casual Vacancy. It’s an interesting exercise and surprisingly hard! List of Most Common Political Terms With Their Meanings, Of all topics relating to English Vocabulary, Politics is, without doubt, the most. Hustings: The political activities, meetings and speeches that happen before an election. I'm CEO of MyEnglishTeacher.eu. The Public Purse: Money collected by government in the form of taxes. An alarming thought, although in the case of a national emergency, Parliament would BE RECALLED. Political terms that are not well understood get tossed around on the political stage. The subject matter covers national legislatures, elections, local The shortfall in any one year of a nation’s income as compared to its expenditure / the total unpaid accumulated debt of the government over time. Fr. Appropriation An act of Congress that enables Federal agencies to spend money for specific purposes. For many students studying Business English and practising their business email writing skills is an important part of their course. A carpet bag was a fashionable form of luggage of the time used by northern “Yankees”, political appointees or businessmen, who moved down to southern states during the American post-Civil War Reconstruction era taking advantage of the instability, power vacuum and fire sale prices of the property market. Term derived from the 1689 Bill of Rights enacted by the British Parliament after the Glorious Revolution. In optional preferential voting systems, a vote that was not fully completed and, in being counted, has reached its last candidate, still not made up a quota, and thus becomes worthless. free market economic system abused to the degree where some business people have become successful due to their relationships with government. Daughter of the Trojan king Priam in Homer’s Illiad, who not only possessed the gift of prophecy but was cursed by the god Apollo in that she would never be believed. English philosopher of the 18th century and founder of Utilitarianism. Originally applying to non urban, pre-industrial revolution peoples with traditional, conservative attitudes, those who believe in the collective ownership and control of primary industries, and to a lesser extent secondary industries, for the benefit of all, but otherwise not that committed to other socialist beliefs such as progressive/liberal approaches to domestic or international social concerns. Aka Shy Tory Factor. Also another name for an electorate. A law where there may have been conjecture as to its meaning, but where appellate courts have subsequently settled the issue. Football analogy to describe a tactic of questionable legitimacy whereby the executive and / or the legislature manufacture a process whereby an action can be claimed to be legal even though, prima facie, it violates the tenets and text of the constitution. The Queen (as head of Parliament, although her role is mainly symbolic), the HOUSE OF LORDS, and the HOUSE OF COMMONS, are part of Parliament. A type of laissez-faire policy, where, in response to calls for government funding or regulation to address a recently developed problem, a ‘do nothing’ approach is alternatively undertaken in the belief that, over time, it will improve, or at least not hurt, the interests of the "neglected" group. Secondly, both houses of Parliament are dissolved at the time of the election, rather than normal situation where the Senate only dissolves at the end of its set term, which can mean that it can be as much as eleven months after a normal election before the new Senators take their seats. A wasteful government financed infrastructure developed at a cost much greater than its value, undertaken for local or political gain. The set of basic rules by which a country or state is governed. Jarring:Incongruous, doesn’t seem to fit, seems out of place. The ‘cronies’ of politicians receive favouritism in legal permits, government grants, tax breaks, licences and other forms of state intervention. Greek for gathering place or assembly. “by virtue of one’s office”. To follow and support a no-chance-of-winning campaign or cause because of peer pressure. With regards to the lower house, single member, central government, the UK is  divided into 650 House of Commons “seats” while the United States has 435 House of Representatives “districts”, and Australia 151 “divisions” or “seats”. Nightmare vision of society beyond that of even a failed, dysfunctional state, where the system is actually planned by those in power, creating, most often, a totalitarian society. Caesar divorced his wife Pompeia after it was suspected, but not proven, that she aided a third party to commit the crime of sacrilege. Also known for his three laws of politics. Sometimes the CV is the only vote the officer has (Speaker of UK House of Commons, President of US Senate), but otherwise it is in addition to his/her normal vote. eg. Rules, regulations, by-laws, ordinances etc made by a government official under the authority of a specific act of parliament which sets out the broad purpose of what is desired, but delegates to that official’s office, the authority to create the minutia, the delegated legislation, necessary. In modern times the most artful in this practice would be the government of North Korea. Where they exist, some examples would be a constitution upon which the supreme court could review the validity of laws or executive decisions, recall elections for politicians and / or judges, veto power over legislation held by the chief executive, and citizens’ initiated referenda. Giga-fren. This includes all voted representatives in Parliament PLUS all the departments, and people in those departments, working for the government. The words used are so specific they cannot be changed without sounding ‘odd’ to a native Briton. Any one-off reading is informative when taking into account what each country’s unit of currency will buy in its own domestic market. So how do we ELECT our Government in Britain? Politics (from Greek: Πολιτικά, politiká, 'affairs of the cities') is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of resources or status.The academic study of politics is referred to as political science.. However, they don’t have to say HOW they would do this. The government and social system that was swept away by the French Revolution. Sometimes includes a Bill of Rights. Attacking the presenter of an argument rather than the argument itself. When there are scandals in the news involving MPs, the people in the area they represent (the constituents) feel let down and betrayed. Each PARTY sets out its ‘MANIFESTO’, which is effectively a list of things they promise to do if they are voted for and GET INTO POWER. The future of companies is predicted, business tactics are analysed, competitors are targeted and strategies are planned. A theory to explain the discrepancy sometimes noticed between pre-election polling and election results where the “socially acceptable” candidate or proposition did not win. In such decisions, the selected candidates would get one quarter of a vote each, or half a vote, or where only one candidate received the vote, the whole vote. uncompromising and difficult! We vote for them, they are given a salary from public taxes, responsibility. First Past the Post’ voting but with the added concept that one can tick (approve of) as many candidates’ names as one wishes, but in no order of preference. ‘First Past the Post’ voting but with the added concept that one can tick (approve of) as many candidates’ names as one wishes, but in no order of preference. Eg. A manipulative leader who gains popularity by appealing to prejudice and basic instincts. His examples include the existence of In other words, this elected person should do everything they can to take the problems and queries of the people in the constituency to Parliament to be discussed and hopefully changed. A type of political speech where a campaigner either does, or is alleged to, put code words in his / her speech to imply more than what is said on its face. However in practice, once a candidate has won 25% [100/(3+1)] of the vote, plus one more actual vote, he/she is granted a seat because it is then impossible for three further candidates to also win seats. whilst the people working in them are, Government! Still exercised in the 20th century in Australian states where a convicted capital felon, Darcy Dugan, was denied the right to sue for defamation and a dangerous inmate, Gregory Kable, was not released after his full prison term was served due to an act of parliament. The ultimate set of laws to which all other laws made by contemporary governments are subservient to. those departments, working for the government. She now lives with her family in Western France. This is usually a good moment to go away on holiday! To him, the concept of natural laws and basic human rights was nothing more than “nonsense on stilts”. MI5 is a Civil Service whilst some of the James Bond characters such as Q, M and Moneypenny would be Civil Servants. ‘white left’. If there are three seats to be won in an election then in theory a quota of 33.3% of the vote (Hare) is needed to win every seat. Whereas a nation’s enacted laws are deemed to protect people from the harmful deeds of their fellow citizens, a B.o.R is deemed to protect the citizenry from the excesses of their rulers. One would be, metaphorical speaking, inside or outside the Beltway. To run something: To be in charge of something, leader, owner. A list of entrenched fundamental human rights as perceived by the declarer. 15 other ways to say In Conclusion Synonyms for IN... Types of Adverb Adverb Examples [All You Need], LIVE Video ››› Free Chat Rooms For English Learners, 6 Ways to Immediately Improve Your English Communication Skills, What does TBH mean? In Ireland university graduates get to elect six university seats as well as exercising a normal vote shared by all other citizens. It is a quest for realism, precision comprehensiveness, and detachment to obtain “neat and tidy” results to explain and generalize political phenomena. Ongoing work within Parliament is trying to ensure that a position in government is not abused, but it is a difficult one. He did not know political terminology in Finnish and used mostly English when meeting with visiting Finnish Communists. A situation in American primary presidential election campaigns where no candidate, by the time of the convention after the final primary election, has accrued a majority of delegates. We also get your email address to automatically create an account for you in our website. The law of the land which comes from neither the statute books nor the constitution but from court law reports. Spanish for neighbourhood or quarter. A place of work where the union has arranged that the employer will only employ those who are its members. Practised in ancient Greece and (to some degree) in some cantons of Switzerland and the New England states of America. In ancient Rome, to prevent aggrieved plebeians from rioting it was ensured that there was always sufficient grain supplies, often at a subsidized price, and that there was entertainment, (chariot races, gladiatorial combats, etc) at stadiums such as the Circus Maximus. An alarming thought, although in the case of a national emergency, Parliament would, things they promise to do if they are voted for and. A motion in legislative systems to bring a filibuster to an end and thus allow a vote on the bill at hand. A person who refuses to discuss, consider or listen to, beliefs or theories contrary to his own. British import tariffs on grains (rye, malt and wheat) in the early nineteenth century, so as to maintain the high price of local produce which benefited the farm owners, who themselves maintained significant political influence. With political news and electoral terminologies being difficult to understand and the often misnomer, it is best we know some political terminologies before the upcoming elections commence in seven states - Goa, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand. Junior Cabinet Minister: An assistant to  Cabinet Minister. Transfer of powers from the national or central government to state or local government. MI5 is a Civil Service whilst some of the James Bond characters such as Q, M, and Moneypenny would be Civil Servants. Candidates: People who put themselves forward to be voted for in an Election. Prime Minister: The leader of the ruling Party. Come Sit a Spell [idiom]. This video deals with some regularly used political terms...this video is completely recorded in mobile itself, so please use earphones at 80% volume for better audibility. Looking for most commonly used business English idioms and phrases? Constituency: Areas of the UK. Whether you’re writing to friends, colleagues or to a potential business partner, your main goal is to get your message across, in other words, to ensure the recipient understands you. Ultimate pragmatist who believed policy decisions should be those that produce the greatest happiness for the greatest number. for beautiful epoch. This dictionary provides the user with the basic vocabulary used in the fields of government and politics, especially in the United Kingdom, the European Union and the United States, and also contains some more informal terms used in the media. That part of government which executes  the law of the land, as compared to the legislature which creates and maintains the law. A person who accepts, with little critical thought, the conventional or orthodox attitudes of the day. How to respond to How Are You? Go over some of the foundational concepts of political science by checking out this set of flashcards. Polling station: The local hall or office where people go to vote. see ‘delegated legislation’. Giga-fren. 5 Common ANGRY Synonyms. The concept of collective, rather than individual, ownership of all the nation’s assets, as well as the duty by those able, to create and / or manage those assets. Fr. for “sanitary cordon”. A vote cast by voters who are out of their division but still within their State or Territory which may be cast at any polling place in that State or Territory. The local candidates and the Party Leaders have put forward their, resident in the UK or British National is entitled to vote, but in order to do so you need to be on the, The day arrives and local vilage halls or sometimes school rooms are turned into, votes are counted, The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland wakes up to. Television, radio, Current Affairs and News Programs are flooded with election news. Similar to a grievance debate, but in this case MPs have the opportunity to raise specific issues with the relevant minister. The system of law, as exists in the Anglo-American world, where an issue is argued in court by two opposing sides, the prosecutor or plaintiff, and the defence. Once your account is created, you'll be logged-in to this account. The term Political Theory as used in the contemporary sense, may mean the scientific theory, the positivist theory, or the behavioral theory. To track down a political candidate to a public event and get in a position to ask him/her questions on issues they would rather not talk about, and to ask follow-up questions if answers are evasive. This is hard, so here is a phrase to help. The American Vice President is, ex officio, the President of the Senate. Prominent in the 60’s with college students and other counter-culture movements. Fr. There are plenty more but most attention is given to the top 3. Sometimes includes a Bill of Rights. Most of us in the business world use emails as the main, and in some cases the only, means of written communication. To be elected/To get elected: To be the Candidate with the most votes! A political body that exercises authority over a nation or state and has the power to make and enforce laws. Technically a brokered convention is only when power brokers, such as super delegates, unelected apparatchiks, step in and use their reserve powers to decide the issue. All the content has been written by Dr. Johnson and is updated periodically. Junior Minister: An assistant in the leadership of a Department. Opposite to the inquisitorial system where a judge or panel of judges call evidence and interrogate witnesses, as exists in many European countries. The alleged justification for acts of war. Electorate: The public who voted for someone, Constituents: The people who live in a constituency. There was Party called the Monster Raving Loony Party, a Party that wore funny clothes and didn’t take themselves seriously, they won surprise elections and ended up in Parliament! A small country economically dependent on a single agrarian export commodity (traditionally a banana exporting, maritime state of the West Indies or Central America), with a corrupt government. Understand political terms used by government officials, and political candidates. A country that is economically or militarily dependent upon another, but not actually controlled politically by the patron state as in the case of a ‘puppet state’. health insurance companies on average charge women higher rates than men because statistics show women seek medical help more often. Alternatively, to ardently and  fanatically dedicate oneself to an idea or purpose whatever the cost. Term has also been used in 2016 US presidential campaign by some players to go well further by inciting violence at opposition campaign rallies. The citizenry themselves voting on all issues affecting them. A derogatory Chinese term to describe what the speaker sees as a naïve white liberal advocating modern ideologies such as peace, empathy and equality in a virtue signalling manner. A state ruled by a caliph, who is considered to be the chief Islamic civil and religious ruler, regarded as the successor in line from Muhammad. GLOSSARY OF POLITICAL TERMS - A - absentee ballot - A ballot marked by a registered voter and mailed to a board of elections before the date of an election, as by a person who will be out of town or working at the polling place on that day or by an ill or disabled person who cannot go to Derogatory term for a politician who panics easily and shows signs of caving when newer, creative, or more ideological policies their party advocates start to come under criticism. Theory attributed to French political scientist Maurice Duverger, which asserts a nexus in the number of political parties in a democratic state with the electoral system used. Term to describe a situation in some countries where the granting of permanent residence to one foreign applicant on whatever grounds (jus soli, humanitarian, skilled or lottery) will give that new resident rights to bring in their spouse or other family members, which in turn will grant further foreigners rights to enter because of their connections to the previous link, thus creating a seemingly perpetual chain. A vote taken in Parliament. open or contested convention. This page is under construction. This has the effect of minimising the chances of minority candidates winning seats. An MP crossing the floor of Parliament to vote with his/her opposition. Aka  andrarchy or phallocracy. Grass roots: Ordinary people in a society, as opposed to those who are in power. When you login first time using a Social Login button, we collect your account public profile information shared by Social Login provider, based on your privacy settings. No longer practiced ancient writ or act of Parliament to declare someone guilty of a crime and/or subject to punishment without benefit of trial.
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